Jumalan Israel on se, mitä hän kutsuu kirkkoksi, kerätty samankaltaiseksi juutalaisista ja pakanoista; ja hän asettaa ihmiset, siten kerätyt hajaantumisesta, vastakkain Abrahamin lihallisille lapsille, jotka olivat poistuneet hänen uskonsa perusteella. – Calvin
Kommentoijat roomalaisista 11:26, ”Kaikki Israel pelastetaan”
Eli Brayleyn keräämä ja analysoima
Vuoden 1913 katolinen tietosanakirja
– “Juutalaisten muuntaminen: Isät, juutalaisten kääntymistä kohti maailman loppua ennusti Pyhä Paavali kirjeessä roomalaisille (11: 25-26): "Sillä en haluaisi sinun tietävän, veljet, tämän mysteerin,. . . että sokeutta on tapahtunut osittain Israelissa, kunnes pakanain täyteys tulee sisään. Ja niin koko Israel pitäisi pelastua, kuten on kirjoitettu: Sionista tulee ulos se, joka pelastaa ja kääntää jumalattomuuden Jaakobilta. . '”(Artikkeli” yleisestä tuomiosta ”)
-“ Israelin osa (jonka katsotaan olevan kansallisen olemassaolon jatkuvuus), joka on jonkin aikaa kovettunut, tulee viime kädessä sisään, ja niin kaikki Israel (jälleen kansallisesti pidettävä, Israelina kansana) pelastetaan. Siten Jumalan ja Israelin liitto, joka on ollut kansallinen, toteutetaan lopulta heille kansakuntana: ei kokoamalla vain yksittäisiä juutalaisia tai kaikkia juutalaisia erikseen kristittyyn kirkkoon – vaan kansallisella palauttamisella juutalaisista, ei epäuskoisesti, vaan kristittynä uskovana kansakuntana kaikille, jotka evankeliumin perusteella voivat edustaa heidän muinaista ylivaltaansa, ja niiden lupausten täydellisyyteen, joita heille ei ole vielä koskaan annettu selvässä merkityksessä . Sen selkeä ymmärtäminen tarkoittaa kaiken luvun väitteiden älykästä ymmärtämistä. ”(Kreikan testamentin kriittinen eksegeettinen kommentti, osa 2, s. 96)
-” Roomalaisten 9–11 konteksti, "Jaakobin" käyttö viitaten Israeliin ja termin "Israel" käyttö Rooma 11: 25-28: ssa, roomalaisissa ja koko NT: ssä osoittavat, että jakeessa "koko Israelin" on viitattava etninen Israel. Todisteet ovat niin painavia, että niitä on vaikea väittää vastustamatta näyttävän tekevän sitä teologisen välttämättömyyden vuoksi. ”(Kuka on koko Israel roomalaisille 11:26?)
– [Commenting on Miriam’s leprosy]: ”Tämä nurina viittaa synagogan tyyppiin, joka on tietämätön kansakunnista kerätyn kirkon salaisuudesta, ja murisee päivittäin moitteita ja kateuttaa ihmisiä, joiden uskon kautta myös itse on vapautettava epäuskoisen spitaalista sen mukaan, mitä luemme: 'Israelin kanssa on osittain sokeutta tapahtunut, kunnes pakanat ovat täynnä, ja niin koko Israel pelastuu.' '(Kirjeet, NPFN , 10: 464-465)
– ”Juutalaiset saattoivat kuitenkin tosissasi tehdä syntiä hylkäämällä Jumalan lahjan … kuitenkin, koska he ovat hyvien ihmisten lapsia, joiden heillä on etuoikeuksia ja monia etuja Jumalalta. Kun he ovat vastaanottaneet, heidät vastaanotetaan ilolla palautuessaan uskoon, koska heidän esi-isiensä muisto herättää Jumalan rakkautta heitä kohtaan. ”(Kommentti roomalaisille, Bray, osa 6, s. 299)
– ”Juutalaisten sokeus kestää vuoteen 2010 asti pakanoiden täyteys on hyväksynyt uskon. Ja tämä on sopusoinnussa sen kanssa, mitä apostoli sanoo alla juutalaisten pelastuksesta, nimittäin siihen, että kun kansakuntien täyteys on saapunut, 'koko Israel pelastuu', ei yksilöllisesti kuten tällä hetkellä, vaan maailmanlaajuisesti. "(Kommentti kirjeessä roomalaisille)
– ”Pappi, joka poltti ja poltti lehmän, ja se, joka poltti, ja joka keräsi tuhkaa, olivat saastaiset samoin kuin se, joka satoi vettä: joko siitä syystä, että juutalaiset tulivat epäpuhtaiksi Kristuksen kuolema, jolloin syntimme vapautetaan; ja tämä iltaan saakka, eli maailman loppuun saakka, jolloin Israelin jäännökset muutetaan. ”(Summa Theologica I-II ae, Q. 102, a.5, vastaus Obj. 5)
Clint E. Arnold
– ”Jumalan valtakunnan ja etnisen / kansallisen Israelin välisten suhteiden luonne on minulle edelleen elävä aihe. Todisteet näyttävät viittaavan siihen, että Jumalalla on edelleen lupauksia täyttää etniselle / kansalliselle Israelille. Tämä ilmaistaan minulle selkeimmin apostolin Paavalin selityksessä, jonka mukaan "Israeliin on tullut osittainen kovettuminen, kunnes pakanat ovat täydellisesti tulleet sisään. Ja tällä tavalla [or, ‘thus/so’] koko Israel pelastuu" (Room. 11:25 -26). Huolimatta tämän kappaleen tulkintavaikeuksista vaikuttaa riittävän selvältä, että juutalaisten keskuudessa ei ole vielä tapahtunut jotain suurta. ”(Jumalan valtakunta, moni Scholar -haastattelu toteutti Justin Taylorin Gospel-koalition verkkosivustolla)  St. Augustine
– ”Uskovien keskusteluissa ja sydämessä on tuttu teema, että viimeisinä päivinä ennen tuomiota juutalaiset uskovat todelliseen Kristukseen, eli meidän Kristukseen, tämän suuren ja ihailtavan avulla profeetta Elias, joka selittää lain heille. ”(Jumalan kaupunki, XX.29)
-” Sillä sinä päivänä juutalaiset – ainakin heistä -, jotka saavat armon ja armon hengen, kun he näkevät Hänen tulevan hänen majesteettinsa puitteissa ja ymmärtävät, että he ovat vanhempiensa henkilö, joka loukkaantui, kun hän tuli ennen hänen nöyryytymisensä, parannuksen tekemistä loukkaamatta häntä intohimonsa kautta. ”(Jumalan kaupunki, XXX)
– ”Kuka antaa pelastuksen Israelille Sionista?” (Ver. 7). Kuka muu kuin se, jonka nöyryytystä olet halveksinut? ymmärretään. Sillä hän tulee kunniassa pikaisten ja kuolleiden tuomion ja oikeudenmukaisten valtakunnan suhteen: niin kuin siinä nöyrässä tulemisessa ”sokeus on tapahtunut osittain Israelille, jotta pakanoiden täyteys pääsisi sisään, "Siinä toisessa tapahtuu, mitä seuraa," ja niin koko Israel tulisi pelastaa. "Sillä myös apostoli ottaa Jesajan todistuksen, jossa sanotaan:" Sionista tulee ulos se, joka kääntää jumalattomuuden Jaakobilta. " ”(Psalmeissa, psalmi 14)
-” pakanat tekevät ihmeitä, pakanain usko on täynnä; poltetut ovat ihmisen olettamuksen aseet … Ja tämän kirkastamisen jälkeen onko hän vielä hylännyt juutalaisten kansan? joista sanoo apostoli: ”Minä sanon teille: etteivät sinun tulisi olla viisaita omissa mielialoissasi; että sokeutta tapahtuu osittain Israelille, kunnes pakanain täyteys tulee sisään. ”… Ja mitä sen jälkeen? ”Ja niin koko Israel pelastuu.” (Psalmeissa, psalmi 46)
– [Commenting on the Jews]: “Tulee aika, maailman loppu tulee, ja koko Israel uskoo; ei niitä, jotka ovat nyt, vaan heidän lapsensa, jotka silloin tulevat. ”(Saarnat Uuden testamentin oppitunneista, saarna 72, NPNF, 6: 472)
Greg L. Bahnsen
-” Tällä ilmoituksella Paulilla on oltava "Israelilla" tarkoittamassa sitä, mitä hän on pitänyt koko luvun käsitteellä: nimittäin etniset juutalaiset (hänen veljensä "lihan mukaan"). Väittää, kuten jotkut tekevät, että Paavali yksinkertaisesti totesi, että "kaikki juutalaisten ja pakanoiden keskuudessa valitut" (eli "kaikki todellinen Israel") pelastuvat, on unohtaa, kuinka merkityksetöntä, ilmeistä, salaperäistä ja antikrimaattista Paavalin julistus olla tehty. Paavali osoittaa Jumalan salaperäisen viisauden, kuinka hän ihmeellisesti käyttää juutalaisten kovettumista pelastamaan pakanain joukkoa, mikä puolestaan provosoi juutalaisia pelastamaan pakanoiden massan, mikä puolestaan provosoi juutalaisia etsimään joukkoa. pelastus, jota pakanat nauttivat. Tätä keskinäistä vuorovaikutusta ei voida tukahduttaa tulkittaessa Paavalia täällä. ”(Evankeliumin hyvinvointi ja Israelin tulevaisuus, Calvinism At present – Four, osa III, nro 2)
John M.G. Barclay
– ”Yksi hetki hän [Paul] kiusaa juutalaisia, jotka estävät evankeliumin leviämistä” kansakuntiin ”ja julistaa Jumalan vihan heille” vihdoin ”(tai jopa” kokonaan ”). [1 Thess 2:14-16]). Toisaalta hän vaatii, että Jumalan lahjat ja Jumalan kutsuminen suhteessa Israeliin ovat peruuttamattomia, niin että hänen nykyisestä "kompastuksestaan huolimatta" kaikki Israel pelastetaan (Room. 11: 11-32) … Keskeisimmästä tekstistä on tullut roomalaiset 9–11, missä Paavali ahdistaa Israelin kohtaloa ja paljastaa toiveensa siitä, että ”koko Israel pelastuu” (Room. 11: 25–26). ”(Paavali, juutalaisuus ja juutalaiset), Paavalin Blackwell-seuralaisessa , toimittanut Stephen Westerholm)
– ”Paavali esittelee juutalaisen paikan paradoksin Jumalan suunnitelmassa. Juutalaiset olivat saapuneet tilanteeseen, jossa he olivat Jumalan vihollisia, jotta pakanat voisivat tulla sisään ja evankeliumin yleismaailmallinen tarkoitus saavutettaisiin. Sana, jota Paavali käyttää, on echthroi. Sitä on vaikea kääntää, koska sillä on sekä aktiivinen että passiivinen merkitys. Se voi tarkoittaa joko vihaa tai vihaa. Voi olla, että tässä kohdassa se on luettava kahdessa merkityksessä kerrallaan. Juutalaiset olivat vihamielisiä Jumalalle ja olivat kieltäytyneet hänen tarjouksestaan, ja siksi he olivat hänen pettymyksensä alla. Se oli nykyinen tosiasia juutalaisista. Mutta heistä oli toinen tosiasia. Mikään ei voinut muuttaa sitä tosiasiaa, että he olivat Jumalan valittuja ihmisiä ja että heillä oli erityinen paikka hänen suunnitelmassaan. Ei väliä mitä he tekivät, Jumala ei voinut koskaan palata sanansa taakse. Hänen lupauksensa oli annettu isille, ja se on täytettävä. Siksi Paavalille oli selvää, ja hän lainasi Is. 59: 20-21 todistaakseen sen, että Jumalan hylkääminen juutalaisilta ei voisi olla pysyvää; niidenkin lopulta on tultava sisään … Mitä tahansa Rom 9-11 -julkaisusta toisinaan voi lukea, se on viimeisessä analyysissä tarina edelleen rakkauden edelleen keskeneräisestä harjoittamisesta. ”(Every day Research Bible)
– ”Joko nämä Pyhän Paavalin sanat roomalaisten tämän yhdestoista luvun luvussa eivät tarkoita mitään tai tarkoittavat sitä, mitä he sanovat, että tulevaisuuden aikana – miten se tapahtuu, emme tiedä – valaistus tulee juutalaisten sydämiin. , vakuuttava heidän mielensä, ja koko niin ihanasti säilyneiden juutalaisten ruumis kääntyy Kristuksen puoleen ja tulee katoliseen kirkkoon. ”(Kirkon saarnatuhan kommentti, toimittanut James Nisbet)
-“ Ja niin koko Israel pelastuu. πᾶς ισραὴλ tarkoittaa tässä koko kansaa; ei, kuten Calvin selittää [i.e. of the spiritual Israel, as in Galatians 6:16, i.e. with Jews and Gentiles]sillä ”Israel” on varmasti ymmärrettävä samassa merkityksessä kuin edellisessä jakeessa, jossa se merkitsee juutalaisten kansakuntaa vastakohtana pakanoille. σωθήσεται, kuten koko asiayhteys näyttää edellyttävän, tarkoittaa tuloa kirkkoon (vrt. Apostolien teot 2:47, ὁ δὲ κύριος προσετίθει τοὺς σωζομένους καθ ἡμέραν τῇ ἐκκ5 Rom55]) ; ] ] – ”Kaikki Israel – kaikki juutalaiset. Juutalaisten keskuudessa se oli maksimiarvo, että ”jokaisella israelilaisella tulisi olla tulevaisuuden aikakausi.” (Grotius.) Apostoli soveltaa tätä maksimia omaan tarkoitukseensa; ja julistaa, missä mielessä se olisi totta. Hän ei tarkoita sanoa, että jokainen juutalainen, joka ikäinen pelastuisi; sillä hän oli osoittanut, että suuri osa heistä hylättiin ja hävisi hänen aikanaan. Mutta tulisi aika, jolloin he kansalaisina toipuisivat; kun kansa kääntyy Jumalan puoleen; ja kun heistä voitiin sanoa, että he kansakuntana palautuivat jumalalliseen suosioon. Ei ole selvää, että hän tarkoittaa, että silloinkin jokainen heistä pelastuu, mutta heidän ruumiinsa; suuri kansakunnan massa olisi. Ei myöskään sanota, milloin tämä olisi. Tämä on yksi niistä asioista, jotka ”Isä on asettanut omiin voimiinsa;” Ap. T. 1: 7. Hän on antanut meille vakuutuksen siitä, että se tehdään rohkaistaksemme meitä pyrkimyksissämme pelastaa heidät; ja hän on piilottanut ajankohdan, jolloin sen tulee olla, ettei meidän pidä rentoutua pyrkimyksistään tai tuntea, että mitään toimenpiteitä ei tarvita sen suorittamiseksi, jonka on tapahduttava määräajassa. Pelastetaan – parannetaan heidän hylkäämisensä jälkeen; palata jumalalliseen suosioon; tulla Messiaan seuraajiksi ja siten pelastua niin kuin kaikki muut kristityt ovat. ”(Raamatun muistiinpanot)
-” Mutta pakanoiden täyteys – ja tämä on jumalallisen päätöksen mysteeri – on ensimmäisenä sisään. Se mitä Romin mukaan. 1:16 kuuluu luonnollisesti 'ensin juutalaisten ja myös kreikkalaisten' tahtoon, ja sen täytyy tosiasiassa kertyä (Israelin jäännöstä lukuun ottamatta) ensin kreikkalaiselle ja vasta sitten juutalaiselle. Ensimmäisten on oltava viimeisiä ja viimeisiä ensimmäisiä (Mk 10:31). Kotitalouden lapset on ajautunut ulos ja saatava odottamaan, kun maapallon neljästä kolkasta kerätyt muukalaiset istuvat jo Jumalan valtakunnassa Aabrahamin, Iisakin ja Jaakobin kanssa (Lk. 13: 28f.). Ja tämä vastaa poliittisella tasolla sitä, että ”Jerusalemia kaadetaan pakanoista, kunnes pakanain ajat täyttyvät” (Lk. 21:24). ”(Kirkon dogmaatti, II.2, s. 300)
– ”Ja koska” Monia kutsutaan, mutta harvoja valitaan ”, hän ei julista siunattuaan sitä, jota kutsutaan, vaan sitä, joka on valittu. Siunattu on se, jonka hän valitsi. Mikä syy siunauksen julistamiseen? Ikuisten siunausten odotettu perintö. Vai onko hän ehkä apostolin mukaan, koska kun koko kansakuntien määrä on saapunut, niin kaikki Israel pelastuu, julistaa ensin siunattuksi koko kansakuntien lukumäärän, sitten myöhemmin Israelin, joka pelastuu? Varmasti ei vain kukaan pelastu, vaan vain se jäännös, joka on armon valinnan mukaan. Siksi hän sanoo: ”Ihmiset, jotka hän on valinnut perintönsä perusteella.” (Homily 15, Homely psalmissa 32, 7, lainattu kirkon isissä) Uusi käännös: Saint Basil Exegetical Homilies, [The Catholic University of America, Press, 1963]s. 241
– ”Jos luin Ernst Kasemannin kanssa roomalaiset 9–11 oikein, Paavali tarkoittaa apokalyptisella” mysteerillä ”kohdissa 11: 25-32, että koko Israel on lyönyt sokeutta. Jumala niin, että he eivät voi tunnistaa Jeesuksessa Israelin Kristusta 'ennen kuin kaikki pakanat ovat saapuneet'. Sitten 'koko Israel pelastuu'. ”Evankeliumin suhteen he ovat vihollisia sinun tähteni, mutta vaalien suhteen he ovat rakastettuja esi-isiensä vuoksi.” Paavali perustelee tehtäväänsä pakanain kanssa, jota hän halusi harjoittaa maan päähän, perustein kaiken Israelin hylkäämä evankeliumi: se on lähtökohta; kun taas koko Israelin hyväksyminen ja pelastaminen yhden, joka tulee Siionista, Parousian Kristuksen kautta, on lopullinen tavoite. ”(Jumala tulee olemaan kaikissa, s. 151)
– Koko Israelin lopullisen pelastuksen "mysteeri" paljastetaan nyt. Vieraantuneita, vaikka he ovat nyt tottelemattomuuden kautta, Jumala aikoo silti osoittaa heille armoa, sillä "lahjat ja Jumalan kutsu ovat peruuttamattomia." … Epäuskossa ja vihamielisyydessä he ovat edelleen Jumalan käsissä, ja hänen armonsa tarkoitus tulee lopettaa voiton heidän nykyisestä tottelemattomuudestaan (v. 25-32). Ja siinä luottamuksessa, että jopa Jumalan vakavuus on viimeinkin osoittanut armoaan, Paavali purskahtaa jaloun jumaloinnin ja ihmeen rukoukseen (vss. 33-36). ”(Roomalaiset, Kirje kirjeelle, Tulkin sanakirja Raamattu, osa 4, s. 120)
Joseph Agar Juurikas
– ”Vastakohta osittain jakeessa 25 viittaa siihen, että Paavali viittaa kaikkiin sitten israelilaisiin, jotka sitten elävät [at the coming of Christ]lukuun ottamatta niin harvoja, että niitä on ei ole merkitystä. ”(Kommentti Pyhän Paavalin kirjeestä roomalaisille, s. 308)
-” Paavalin evankeliumin muotoa on kohtaaminen juutalaisuuteen. Hänen taistelunsa juutalaisen perintönsä kanssa tuntee hänen ajatuksensa kaikki näkökohdat. Sen afektiivinen-kognitiivinen ulottuvuus ei ole missään ilmeisempi kuin hänen pohdinnoissaan Israelin roolista Jumalan pelastussuunnitelmassa, erityisesti hänen ”suuressa surussaan ja jatkuvassa ahdistuksessa” (Room. 9: 2) ja hänen ”sydämensä halussa ja rukouksessa Jumalan puolesta heitä … jotta he pelastuisivat ”(Room. 10: 1). Hänen hämmästyneensä Israelin torjunnasta Kristuksesta, sen "tietämättömyydestä Jumalalta tulevalle vanhurskaudelle" (Rooma 10: Three) ja nykyisestä kovettumisestaan (Rooma 11: 7-10, 25; 9:18) on useless hänelle helpotusta, kun hän muistaa Jumalan pysyvän Israelin vaalin (Room. 11:29) ja tietää, että Israel pelastetaan eskatologisella hetkellä (Room. 11:26). ”(Paavalin perilliset: Paavalin perintö uudessa testamentissa ja tänään kirkossa, s. 26)
Johann Albrecht Bengel
– ”Ja niin – Hän ei sano ja sitten, mutta enemmän väkisin ja niin, joka sitten sisältyy; nimittäin Israelin sokeus päättyy aivan pakanoiden tulemisella. Kaikki Israel – Israel erotettiin pakanoista, joita jakeessa 25 kohdellaan. ”(Uuden testamentin Gnomon)
-” Apostoli kutsuu juutalaisia hylkäämään jonkin aikaa ja palauttamaan heidät jälkeen. Pakolaisten kääntyminen on valmis, mysteeri; koska se oli ihmiskunnalle erittäin tärkeä asia ja koska sitä oli tähän saakka pidetty salassa … Tietyn ajanjakson ajan Israelia ei ole kokonaan eikä lopullisesti hylätty. Ja niin koko Israel pelastuu – uskotaan Jeesukseen kuin todelliseen Messiaan, ja niin heille tehdään pelastus, tietäen totuudesta pakanoiden tullessa sisään… lupausten seurauksena. Isilleen tehdyistä heistä tulee ihmisinä jollakin tulevaisuuden ajanjaksolla Jumalan kansana uskoen evankeliumiin. ”(Herramme ja Vapahtajamme Jeesuksen Kristuksen uusi testamentti, kriittiset, selittävät ja käytännölliset huomautukset, s. 1) 98 – 99)
– ”Meidän on otettava nämä kysymykset vakavasti, vaikka Paavali itse palaa uudelleen kerta toisensa jälkeen Israelin vaaleihin. ”Onko Jumala hylännyt kansansa?” Hän kysyy ja vastaa viivyttämättä: ”Ei missään nimessä!… Jumala ei ole hylännyt kansaansa, jonka hän on ennakolta tuntenut” (Room. 11: 1f.). Myöhemmin samassa luvussa hän kertoo roomalaisille, että juutalaiset ovat ”Jumalan vihollisia sinun takiasi”, mutta ovat “rakastettuja esi-isiensä vuoksi” (jae 28). Hän selittää kaiken sanomalla, että ”Jumalan lahjat ja kutsu ovat peruuttamattomia” (jae 29). Paavalin painottaminen ennakkotietoihin ja peruuttamattomuuteen herättää ymmärrettävästi kysymyksen siitä, voidaanko Israelin historiaa Messiaan hylkäämisen jälkeen todella pitää loppuneena ja ilman enempää merkitystä. Eikö tästä peruuttamattomuudesta ole selvää, että juutalaisilla on edelleen todellisia näkymiä? Berkhof ei epäröi tehdä tätä johtopäätöstä: että Uuden testamentin vastaus kysymykseen Israelin tulevaisuudesta on ilmeinen – Israelin pelastus. "Se kansakunta, jolle hän ensisijaisesti tuli ja joka ennen muuta on varattu hänen kunniakseen ja palvelemiseen – löytää tiensä takaisin kutsumukseensa … Täällä ja muualla [God’s] uskollisuus osoittautuu ylittävän ja voittavan epäuskollisuutemme." On selvää, että Berkhofin sanojen ”ilmeinen” ja ”pakollinen” valinta perustuu ajatukseen vaalista ja sen peruuttamattomuudesta siihen, että Jumala ei palaudu lupauksensa antamiin lupauksiin. Se ei ole vain yksi erillinen teksti – ja "niin kaikki Israel pelastetaan" (Room. 11:26) -, mutta koko vaalien jumalallinen aloite, joka toimii tulevaisuuden takauksena. Se, mitä Paavali sanoo, vain vahvistaa tämän. "(Kristuksen paluu, Tutkimukset dogmaattisissa tutkimuksissa, s. 327)
-" Paavalin tarkoittama 'Israel', jonka monet ovat todenneet, ei ollut Israelin kansakunta, vaan kokonaisuus pelastettavia, sekä juutalaisia että pakanoita, uskovia, todellista, henkistä Israelia. Tässä yhteydessä viitataan usein lisäviitteeseen Galatians 6: 16… Joka tapauksessa Galatians 6:16: ta ei voida käyttää todistamaan, että Roomalaiset 11:25 puhuvat henkisestä Israelista. Doekes nostaa uuden vakavan vastalauseen tälle henkistävälle tulkinnalle: hän huomauttaa, että roomalaiset 9–11 mainitsevat Israelin yksitoista kertaa, joista kymmenen on ilmeisiä viittauksia Israeliin kansakuntana, joten äkillisesti ei ole syytä tulkita 11:26 viittaukseksi henkinen yhteisö. Siksi Ridderbos, vastoin Calvinia, ylläpitää Israelin erityistä merkitystä; ja H.M. Matter huomauttaa oikein, että 'henkistä Israelia' ei voida tulkita yhdenmukaisesti Paavalin ajattelutavan kanssa. Viimeinen tuki kirjaimelliselle tulkinnalle on väite, jonka mukaan jakeessa 28 – puhuttuaan koko Israelin pelastuksesta – Paavali puhuu Israelin kansasta jälleen "rakkaana heidän esi-isiensä puolesta". Israelin keskustelua ei keskeytetä. jakeessa 26 … 'Israel' pysyi Paavalille kiinnostavana aiheena peruuttamattomien lahjojen ja Jumalan kutsun takia. Hän näkee armon, jonka pakanat ovat saaneet tottelemattomuutensa jälkeen, ja päättelee, että ”niin he [the Jews] ovat nyt olleet tottelemattomia, jotta heillekin osoitetulla armoilla [the Gentiles] he myös voisivat saada armon” (jae 31). Siksi tässä on varmasti armo tottelemattomalle Israelille. "(Ibid., S. 345)
-" Ja niin se on: hajallaan olevat [the Jews] ovat. Kristittyjen ruhtinasten alla he kärsivät kovaa vankeutta, mutta ”he odottavat useless vapautumisensa aikaa.” Apostoli kertoi lopulta, että kun aika on kypsä, kaikki Israel pelastetaan. Mutta ne, jotka kuolevat aikaisemmin, pysyvät kuolemassa … Jos juutalaiset pyyhitään kokonaan pois, mistä tulee toivomme heidän luvatusta pelastuksesta, heidän mahdollisesta kääntymyksestään? ”(Kirje Englannille kutsuttamaan toinen ristiretki, 1146)
– ”[The Jews] on hajotettu, heitetty alas. He joutuvat kovaan vankeuteen kristittyjen prinssien alaisuudessa. Silti ne muutetaan tasaisena ajankohtana, ja muistetaan heistä oikeaan aikaan. Viimeinkin, kun monien pakanalaisten on saapunut sisään, ”kaikki Israel on pelastettu”, sanoo apostoli. Sillä välin kuolevainen pysyy kuolemassa … Lisäksi, jos juutalaiset poltetaan lopullisesti [i.e. annihilated]kuinka luvattu pelastus tai kääntymys hyötyy heistä lopulta? ”(Kirje Itä-Ranskalle ja Baijerille edistäen toista ristiretkeä, 1146)  Theodore Beza
– ”[The world will] voidaan palauttaa kuolemasta elämään uudelleen silloin, kun juutalaisten pitäisi myös tulla, ja heidät on kutsuttava evankeliumin ammattiin.” (Siteerattu julkaisussa JA DeJong, Because the Waters) Peitä meri: Tuhatvuotiset odotukset angloamerikkalaisten operaatioiden nousussa, 1640–1810, s. 9)
– ”Tämä ei tarkoita suurta enemmistöä eikä tarkoita kaikkia todellisia Jumalan kansaa eikä vielä” kaikkia valittuja juutalaisia ”(kaikkea sitä kansan osaa, joka muodostaa jäännöksen armon valinnan mukaan) ); mutta se viittaa koko kansakuntaan. ”(Millennium Bible, s. 425)
Craig A. Blaising
-” Tässä on syytä korostaa Paavalin väitteen keskeisiä piirteitä. CEB Cranfield ilmaisi kaksikymmentäyksi vuotta sitten sen, mitä nykyään vakuutetaan NT: n tutkimuksissa, kun hän kirjoitti: "Nämä kolme lukua [Rom. 9–11] kieltävät meitä puhumasta kirkosta kuin siitä, että se olisi kerran ja lopulta ottanut juutalaisten kansalle." Tärkeimmät hermeneuttiset näkökohdat ovat seuraavat: Paavali toteaa aluksi Room. 9: ssä, että hän on huolissaan "veljistään", "lihastansa olevista sukulaisistaan", "israelilaisista" (9: 3–5). Israel ei ole onnistunut saamaan vanhurskautta, joka on uskossa (9: 30–32; 10: 2–21). He ovat evankeliumin vihollisia (11:28). Paavali kuitenkin rukoilee heidän puolestaan, että heidät pelastuisi (10: 1). Hän väittää, että Jumalan Israelia koskeva sana toteutetaan (9: 6, 27–29; 11: 1–5, 26–29), mutta kahdella tavalla. Tällä hetkellä Jumala täyttää sanan, joka lupasi jäännöksen pelastuksen koko Israelia vastaan (9: 27–29; 11: 1–7, 25). Ja niin, Paavali toteaa, että hänen päiväänään on olemassa jumalan armollisten vaalien mukaan jäännös, joka sisältää itsensä kaltaiset ”israelilaiset” (11: 1–2, 5). Israelin enemmistön kovettuminen nykyisessä ajassa on tapa, jolla Jumala on päättänyt laajentaa pelastuksen rikkaudet pakanoille (11:25). Tämä on mysteeri siinä suhteessa, että vaikka olisi voinut odottaa Israelin siunattavan kokonaan ennen siunauksen ulottamista pakanain, tosiasiassa Jumala tuo esiin pakanajen täyteyden ensin, kun Israel on suurimmaksi osaksi kovetettu. Joten ensimmäinen osa Jumalan sanan toteutumisesta Israelia kohtaan koskee nykyistä aikaa, ja se on sanan toteutuminen, että vain jäännös pelastuisi (9: 4, 6–12, 27–29; 11: 5) . Mutta toinen osa Jumalan sanan toteutumisesta Israelia kohta on se, mitä Raamatun tunteneet aivan oikein odottivat – loistava siunaus Israelille kansallisesti. Israel on kompastellut (9: 32b – 33; 11: 9–11), ja siinä kompastustilassa Jumala täyttää sanansa jäännöksen pelastamisesta. Paavali kuitenkin sanoo, etteivät he ole kompastelleet putoamiseksi (11:11). Jos heidän epäonnistuminen on tarkoittanut rikkautta pakanoille, kuinka paljon enemmän Israelin täyteys tuo siunauksen rikkautta maailmalle (11:12)? Tässä oleva täyteys verrataan osaan, jäänteeseen, joka pelastetaan nykyisessä ajassa (11: 7–26). Kun Israelin hylkääminen nykyisessä ajassa tarkoittaa pakanoiden sovittelua Jumalaan, heidän tulevaisuuden hyväksyminen tarkoittaa elämää kuolleista (11:15). Tämä on käännöksen kieli. Israel, joka on nyt ”Jumalan vihollinen evankeliumin suhteen” (11:28); Israelista, josta nyt vain jäännös on pelastettu (9: 27–29; 11: 5), Israeliin, jonka puolesta Paavali rukoilee ja jolle hän haluaa itsensä kirotettavan heidän pelastuksekseen (9: 1–3; 10: 1), Israel, joka on menettänyt Jumalan vanhurskauden kompastuessa kompastuksen päälle (9: 32b – 33, 11: 9). , Israel on kuitenkin rakastettu esi-isien vuoksi (11:28). Kerma on pyhä ensimmäisen taikinan palan takia; oksat ovat juuren takia pyhät (11:16), ja vaikka Jumala olisi hajotanut ne pois, hän kykenee ja tosiasiallisesti varttamaan ne uudelleen (11: 23–24). Herran sanan mukaan lunastaja tulee Siionista ja poistaa jumalattomuuden Jaakobilta. Hän täyttää liitonsa heidän kanssaan ja koko Israel pelastuu (11: 26–27). ”(Israelin tulevaisuus teologisena kysymyksenä, Evankelisen teologisen seuran lehti, s. 437–8)
Donald G Bloesch
– "Kun Paavali tunnustaa, että" koko Israel pelastetaan ", hän ajattelee epäilemättä etnisen Israelin tulevaa palauttamista. Calvin teki virheen tulkittaessa ”koko Israelia” tarkoittaen koko kirkon, pakanakristittyjen ja uskovien juutalaisten jäännösten summaa. Puritaanit ja pietistit löysivät paavalin toivon Israelista kansakuntana ja Israelin kautta maailman toiveesta. Herramme jakoi tämän toivon itse, sillä Jeesus odotti innokkaasti sitä iloista päivää, jolloin hänen kansansa kiistäisi häntä Israelin Messiana ja maailman herrana ja Vapahtajana: ”Sanon sinulle, et näe minua enää, ennen kuin sinä sano: 'Siunattu on se, joka tulee Herran nimessä' '(Matt. 23: 37-39). "(' Kaikki Israel pelastetaan ', supercessionismi ja raamatullinen todistaja, s. 134)
James Montgomery Boice
– ”Ottaen huomioon Paavalin selkeät lausunnot täällä ja koko roomalaisessa kirjassa 11, en näe, kuinka monet nykypäivän uudistetut teologit hylkäävät ajatuksen tulevaisuuden siunatusajasta Israelille. Tiedän miksi he tekevät sen. He eivät pidä joidenkin kokeiltujen profetian yksityiskohdista, joissa Israelilla näyttää olevan erillinen kohtalo kirkosta. Ja he eivät pidä implisiittistä teologiaa. Heidän ajattelutavansa mukaan kaiken tulevaisuuden Israelin kuin kansan siunauksen on oltava taaksepäin askel, taantuma Jumalan suunnitelmassa. Hengelliset todellisuudet Kristuksessa ovat korvanneet heille osoittaneet juutalaiset tyypit. Kirkko on korvannut Israelin. Tässä mielessä kirkosta tulee uusi Israel, ja vanha Israel korvataan ikuisesti. Mutta kuinka he voivat vahvistaa tämän ottaen huomioon Paavalin tässä opetuksen? Paavali ei puhu henkisestä Israelista näissä luvuissa. Hän puhuu juutalaisista kansakuntana. Ja kun hän kysyi: idOnko ne kompastuneet, jotta ne eivät kuulu toipumiseen? Hänen vastaus on yhtä korostava kuin käsitellessään antinomianismia tai Jumalan lain hyviä tarkoituksia (Room. 6: 2, 15; 7:13). -Ei lainkaan! Ei suinkaan! Jumala varjelkoon! Paavalille oli käsittämätöntä, että Jumala hylkäisi Israelin, koska sen tekeminen tarkoittaisi, että Jumala rikkoo liitto-lupauksensa, eikä hän pystynyt tekemään sitä ja pysymään totuudenpitäjänä, uskollisena jumalana. ”(Roomalaiset, osa 3 , s. 1323; huomautus: Boice, itse uskonpuhdistettu teologi, korosti useiden leirinsä kuuluvien teologien dogmaattista eikä eksegeettistä perustaa.
– ”Olen yksi niistä, jotka uskovat Israelin palauttamiseen ja muuntaminen; jotka vastaanottavat sen tulevaisuuden varmuutena, että koko Israel kootaan ja että kaikki Israel pelastetaan. Uskon Israelin nykyiseen heikkenemiseen, joten uskon Israelin tulevaan kunniaan ja ensisijaisuuteen. Uskon, että Jumalan tarkoitus maailmaa kohtaan voidaan ymmärtää vain ymmärtämällä Jumalan Israelin tarkoitus. Uskon, että kaikkien ihmisen maan tulevaisuutta koskevien laskelmien, olivatpa ne sitten poliittisia, tieteellisiä, filosofisia tai uskonnollisia, on oltava epäonnistumisia, elleivät he ota tietojensa tai pohjansa vuoksi Jumalan suurta tarkoitusta Israelin viime päivän asemaan. Uskon, ettei ole mahdollista päästä Jumalan mieleen ihmisen kohtalon suhteen ottamatta avaimemme tai oppaamme Hänen mielessään muinaista kansakuntaa kohtaan – kansakuntaa, jonka historia on toistaiseksi päättynyt tai melkein päättynyt, useless aloittaa. Ja jos joku voi kysyä ylpeänä, mitä juutalaisilla voi olla tekemistä maailmanhistorian kanssa? Emmekö voi filosofisoida oikein tuon tulevan historian suhteen ja ottaa maailman kurssin kantaa jättäen Israelin kokonaan huomiotta? Me sanomme, ei; mutta oi ihminen, kuka sinä olet sitä repliksi Jumalaa vastaan? ”(Quarterly Journal of Prophecy, heinäkuu 1870, s. 209-11)
-” Tulee päivä, jolloin tulee olemaan juutalaisten tai israelilaisten kansallinen muutos. Nyt sokaistuneet ja hylätyt juutalaiset muutetaan lopulta Kristuksen uskoon ja liittyvät kristilliseen kirkkoon. Vanhassa testamentissa on monia lupauksia tästä, mutta vahvistan sen roomalaisilta, luku. XI. missä apostoli vaatii sitä tarkoituksella … Apostoli vakuuttaa nimenomaisesti, jakeet 25, 26. Näissä hän osoittaa, että juutalaisten sokeus on useless osittain ja kestää vain tietyn ajan, kun tapahtuu kansallinen käännös, ja niin koko Israel pelastuu. Tämä ei ole tarkoitettu henkiselle Israelille, sillä heidän kääntymyksensä ei voisi olla mikään mysteeri. But because the conversion of the Gentiles was a thriller to the Jews, and to Gentiles themselves underneath the Previous Testomony, Eph. iii. Three-6. So is that of the Jews, to the Gentiles and Jews themselves, underneath the New Testomony. And as many Jews then would not consider the one, so many Christians now consider not the opposite.” (The Entire Works of the Late Reverend and Discovered Mr. Thomas Boston, Quantity 3, p. 357, 358; notice: Boston goes on to offer practical exhortation to wish for the conversion of the Jews)
Edward I. Bosworth
-“All Israel is sometimes said to designate all true believers whether Jew or Gentile, but decisively opposed to this interpretation is the fact that Gentiles and Jews are the subject of the whole discussion. Also in the quotation ‘Jacob’ clearly designates the Jewish nation, and the words ‘they’ and ‘you’ in verses 28-30 clearly contrast Jews and Gentiles. The quotation merges Is. 59:20 and 27:9, both of which refer to Jacob.” (Commentary on the Epistle of Paul to the Romans, p. 221)
Manfred T. Brauch
-“The completion of the mission to the Gentiles will result in, or lead to, Israel’s ‘fullness’ or ‘completion’ (Rom. 11:12), her ‘acceptance’ (Rom. 11:15) These phrases anticipate the affirmation that ‘all Israel will be saved.’ The way from the anticipation of this conviction to this climactic expression is paved by the analogy of the olive tree (Rom. 11:17-24) and its astounding claim that God will indeed graft the broken-off branches of unbelieving Israel back into the olive tree to join the branches of ‘remnant Jews’ and believing Gentiles who have already been grafted to the olive tree… the ‘hardening [which] has come upon part of Israel’ (Rom. 11:25) is limited not only in extent, but also with regard to time: its rejection will last only ‘until the fullness of the Gentiles’ comes. This completion of God’s purpose among the Gentiles leads then to the completion of that same redemptive purpose for Israel, in that ‘all Israel will be saved’ (11:26). Commentators are agreed that ‘all Israel’ means Israel ‘as a whole,’ as a historical people who have a unique and particular identity, not necessarily including every individual Israelite… While in Romans 11:25-26 the present ‘part of Israel’ which is hardened is contrasted with ‘all Israel’ which will be saved in the future, it is clear that ‘all Israel’ denotes both the already-saved remnant and the yet-to-be-saved ‘others’ or ‘rest’ (Rom. 11:7). What is also clear from the whole thrust of the discussion in Romans 9-11 is that God’s purposes for the salvation of Israel will be realized in no other way and by no other means than through the preaching of the gospel and the response which will lead to ‘life from the dead’ (Rom. 11:15), clearly a reference to the eschatological event of the resurrection which will be preceded by the ‘completion of Israel’ (Rom. 11:26) as the last stage in the process initiated by the death and resurrection of Jesus.” (Onerous Sayings of the Bible, p. 569-70)
Keith L. Brooks
-“The Jews, at present cast off because of unbelief, will in due time as a people be taken into God’s favor again, when the fullness of the Gentiles be come in and when the Deliverer (Christ) shall have appeared again. As a people they are for this age judicially blinded, although there is a remnant according to faith in Christ. The Gentiles grafted into the Church must not trample upon the Jews as a reprobate people, but remember that the law of faith excludes all boasting, either of ourselves or against others.” (Summarized Bible)
-“Not ‘all the spiritual Israel’, Jew and Gentile (as some), for throughout all this chapter, the apostle by ‘Israel’ means exclusively the natural seed of Abraham, whom he sharply distinguishes from the Gentiles; nor the whole believing remnant of the natural Israel (as others). Clearly the meaning here is, The Israelitish nation at large. To understand this great statement, as some still do, merely of such a gradual inbringing of individual Jews, that there shall at length none remain in unbelief, is to do manifest violence to it and to the context. It can only mean the ultimate ingathering of Israel as a nation, in contrast with the present remnant. (So Tholuck, Meyer, De Wette, Philippi, Alford, Hodge). Three confirmations of this now follow: two from the prophets, and a third from the Abrahamic covenant itself.” (Jamieson, Fausset, Brown, The Epistle to the Romans, p. 117)
Thomas R. Browning
-“That leads, of course, to the final phrase, “Israel”. What does Paul mean when he says, Israel.” Nicely the older commentators like Calvin would say that he means the elect of the Jews and Gentiles together. That’s Israel or one other strategy to say it is, “That’s spiritual Israel.” But the newer commentators like Hodge, Boice and Sproul would say that he is speaking concerning the nation of Israel, that is, ethnic Israel. So what I need to do this morning is take a second and show you why they hold that view. To try this, I want you to look again to verse 25. Romans 11:25… “I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in.” Who’s he speaking to right here? Properly, we all know from verse 13 that he is speaking to the Gentiles. Romans 11:13… “I am talking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentiles, I make much of my ministry…” What does he want them to avoid? Nicely, he needs them to keep away from turning into conceited or “puffed up.” Now what does he imply by “Israel” in verse 25? Properly, since he contrasts “Israel” with the “the Gentiles,” Israel should check with the ethnic Jews or national “Israel.” If that’s the case, then Paul is saying one thing like this, “Look here you Gentiles, I don’t want you to be uninformed and I certainly don’t want you to become puffed up. The Jews have experienced a hardening but that is only until the whole number of the Gentiles have been incorporated into the people of God.” And if that’s the case, that Paul means the ethnic Jews when he refers to Israel in verse 25, then what does Israel imply in verse 26 when he says…
Romans 11:26… “And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob.”” Now I suppose he might have been speaking about “ethnic Jews” in verse 25 and then switched to talk about “spiritual Israel” in verse 26. But the question is, actually is, how doubtless would he have been to have finished that. No, I don’t assume it’s possible at all. Now I freely admit that earlier in Romans Paul made the purpose that there’s a religious Israel. Romans 2:28… “A man is not a Jew if he is only one outwardly, nor is circumcision merely outward and physical. No, a man is a Jew if he is one inwardly; and circumcision is circumcision of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the written code. Such a man’s praise is not from men, but from God.” Romans 9:6… “It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel.” However I feel when he uses the term “Israel” to confer with ethnic Israel in verse 25 after which makes use of the identical term in verse 26 without qualifying it a method or one other, you virtually have to simply accept that it’ll have the same which means in each locations. Once you do that each one you’re doing is deciphering the passage letting the fast context guide you. And that’s the point of Sproul, Boice and Hodge. Now when you view the passage that approach, what it says is something like this, “As it stands right now ethnic Israel is hardened and they are hardened until all of the Gentiles that make up God’s elect are brought in and then at that point that will bring about the salvation of a vast array of Jews.” Now I have to add that isn’t the best way Father Calvin seen the passage. Still, I am not torn right here; I’m with Hodge, Sproul and Boice on this one. I feel they’re right. To me the fast context demands that Paul be talking about Israel and it’s nationwide revival or salvation.” (Paul’s Letter to the Romans: And So All Israel Will Be Saved, p. 15-18)
-“It is impossible to entertain an exegesis which understands ‘Israel’ here in a different sense from ‘Israel’ in verse 25 (‘a hardening has come upon part of ‘Israel’). The connecting words ‘and so’ (cf. 5:12) say more than ‘and then’: they imply that ‘in this way – by the operation of the divine purpose that the gospel should be received by the Gentile first, and then also by the Jew – the salvation of ‘all Israel’ will come about. ‘All Israel’ is a recurring expression in Jewish literature, where it need not mean ‘every Jew without a single exception’, but ‘Israel as a whole’. Thus ‘all Israel has a portion in the world to come’, says the Mishnah tractate Sanhedrin (10.1), and proceeds immediately to name certain Israelites who have no portion therein.” (The Letter of Paul to the Romans, TNTC, p. 209)
“But in Rom. 11:25-27 Paul is not quoting from Isa. 59 only. He has in mind a number of Old Testament passages, which have enough in common to indicate that they deal with the same theme, although each of them by itself deals only with a partial aspect of that theme. When all of them are taken together, however, the conclusion to which Paul is led by them is irresistible. In addition to Isa. 59, he has in mind the ‘new covenant’ oracle of Jer. 31:31-34, and the Greek version of Isa. 27:9 (‘and this is his [Jacob’s] blessing, when I take away his sin’), while the phrase ‘but out of Zion’ (in place of ‘to Zion’ of the Hebrew text of Isa. 59:20 or ‘for Zion’s sake’ of the Greek version) is apparently based on Psa. 14:7 (repeated in Psa. 53:6). A restoration of ‘all Israel’ is the natural implication of these passages, taken together.” (Solutions to Questions, p. 87-88)
-“Even the temporary unbelief of the Jews is included in God’s plan of salvation. The Jews are not the expelled but the reinstated. In the last resort both Jews and Gentiles are equal before God. Both have at the beginning said No to God, and then by God’s mercy faith is nevertheless bestowed upon them. The Jews must wait until all this has happened to the Gentiles—and this having to wait is the punishment for their disobedience. But at last their turn comes, too.” (The Letter to the Romans, p. 98)
-“On this basis Paul declares (among other things) that ‘all Israel will be saved’ (11:26)—not thereby claiming that every single Jew will go to heaven, but certainly affirming his conviction that Israel as a whole, ethnic Israel, will find there is a place for her in the final salvation.” (Theological Interpretation of the New Testomony: A E-book-by-Guide Survey, edited by Kevin Vanhoozer, Daniel J. Treier, and N.T. Wright, p. 94)
-“The mystery which Paul proclaims and the prophecy is that the blindness of Israel happened only in part, temporarily, until the destined and prescribed multitude of Gentiles enter into Christ, and thus all Israel will become saved. He speaks of the people of the Jews… They are now indeed blinded, but by a blindness which is temporary (i.e. ‘partial’), not to last forever. For when the fullness of the Gentiles has come to Christ, that is, the full number of the elect, all Israel also, that is, the entire nation, will be saved, and the kingdom of God will flourish publicly once again among them.” (Ennarrationes in Epistolam D. Pauli ad Romanos [Basil, 1562]p. 442)
-“Here the apostle fully proves, that the rejection of the Jews was neither total nor final; not total, because blindness in part only, happened unto Israel; that is, part of the Jews only are left in unbelief, and under the power of spiritual blindness. Nor is their rejection final, but for a time only; namely, till the fulness of the Gentiles be come in: that is, till the Gentile churches be advanced to an honourable state and fulness. And then all the Israel of God, the faithful seed of Abraham, and the main body of the Jews, shall make up the catholic church, and be saved from their unbelief; according to that gracious promise.” (Expository Notes with Practical Observations; word: 17th century scholar; discover how Burkitt interprets ‘Israel’ because the Church, however however can’t keep away from Paul’s point that the Jewish individuals might be introduced back in and saved. Calvin does the identical factor.)
-“[Equating ‘all Israel’ with] the totality of believers, Jewish and Christian… is generally rejected today in favor of a reference to the whole of ethnic Israel.” (Romans, Sacra Pagina, p. 354; notice: Byrne is a Roman Catholic scholar)
-“Many understand this of the Jewish people, as though Paul had said, that religion would again be restored among them as before: but I extend the word Israel to all the people of God, according to this meaning, — ‘When the Gentiles shall come in, the Jews also shall return from their defection to the obedience of faith; and thus shall be completed the salvation of the whole Israel of God, which must be gathered from both; and yet in such a way that the Jews shall obtain the first place, being as it were the first-born in God’s family.’ This interpretation seems to me the most suitable, because Paul intended here to set forth the completion of the kingdom of Christ, which is by no means to be confined to the Jews, but is to include the whole world. The same manner of speaking we find in Galatians 6:16. The Israel of God is what he calls the Church, gathered alike from Jews and Gentiles; and he sets the people, thus collected from their dispersion, in opposition to the carnal children of Abraham, who had departed from his faith.” (Commentary on Romans; see Calvin’s further feedback on 11:27-29; word: even Calvin couldn’t deny Paul’s level that the Jews can be transformed, although he interprets ‘Israel’ spiritually. Calvin’s concept—that the Church is Israel—just isn’t false, however is that Paul’s which means in Rom. 11:26? Dan Shute feedback: “This is not Calvin’s finest hour as exegete—his most ingenious maybe, but not his finest. I have found no other Christian exegete before Calvin’s time who interpreted Romans 9, 10, and 11 in such a way that a future conversion of the Jews was excluded.” [And All Israel Will Be Saved, in Peter Martyr Vermigli And The European Reformations: Semper Reformanda, p. 166]edited by Frank James)
-“Paul quotes this passage, (Rom. xi. 26,) in order to shew that there is still some remaining hope among the Jews; although from their unconquerable obstinacy it might be inferred that they were altogether cast off and doomed to eternal death. But because God is continually mindful of his covenant, and “his gifts and calling are without repentance,” (Rom. xi. 29,) Paul justly concludes that it is unimaginable that there shall not at size be some remnant that come to Christ, and acquire that salvation which he has procured. Thus the Jews should at length be collected together with the Gentiles that out of both “there may be one fold” beneath Christ. (John x. 16). . . . Hence we have now stated that Paul infers that he [Christ] couldn’t be the redeemer of the world, without belonging to some Jews, whose fathers he had chosen, and to whom this promise was instantly addressed.” (Commentary on the E-book of the Prophet Isaiah; notice: again we see that Calvin couldn’t escape the conclusion that Paul had the Jews in mind in Romans 11:26, although he softens the importance of the prophecy.)
-“While it is too much to see this sequence of events surrounding the salvation of the Gentiles as having no part in the cause of the salvation of Israel, it is likely that Paul meant to point forward (I meant hear syntactically, not temporally) to the coming of the redeemer as the means of the salvation of all Israel… The pairing of ούτος with καθώς γέγραπται tends to throw the meaning forward. The paraphrase might be ‘In this way (the way that it is written), all Israel will be saved.’ Against this suggestion, Hvalvik argues that Paul ‘never uses ούτος correlatively to καθώς γέγραπται.’ Hvalvik is correct as to καθώς γέγραπται, but, as Wagner points out, Paul did use ούτος with καθώς in Philippians 3:17, where ούτος more clearly points forward to the clause introduced by καθώς. The fact that γέγραπται is missing should not harm the argument. The way that Israel will be saved, then, is the redeemer who will remove ungodliness from Jacob… I side with the majority view among present scholarship that in 11:25-27 Paul refers to ethnic Israel.” (Christ is God Over All: Romans 9:5 in the Context of Romans 9-11, p. 173)
D.A. Carson & Douglas Moo
-“The gospel and Israel (9:1-11:36). A key motif throughout Romans 1-8 is the question of the relationship between law and gospel, Jew and Gentile, God’s old-covenant people and his new-covenant people. This is the theme of the third major section of the letter. Does the transfer of covenant privileges from Israel to the church mean that God has spurned his promises to Israel (9:1-6a)? Not at all, Paul answers. First, God’s promises were never intended to guarantee salvation to every Israelite by birth (9:6b-29). Second, the people of Israel themselves are to blame for failing to embrace God’s righteousness in Christ, despite God’s clear word to them (9:30-10:21). Furthermore, some Israelites, like Paul, are being saved, and in them God’s promises are being fulfilled (11:1-10). Finally, in the climax to his argument, Paul counters the arrogant boasting of some Gentile Christians by reminding them that it is only through Israel that salvation has come to them and that there awaits a day when God’s promise to Israel will come to full realization and ‘all Israel will be saved’ (11:12-36).” (An Introduction to the New Testament, p. 392)
-[Commenting on Psalm 103:9]: “‘He will not always be angry, nor will He be wroth forever’: This verse can be applied also to the Jewish people, who we know are to be converted at the world’s end. On this Paul says: Blindness in part has happened in Israel, that the fullness of the Gentiles should come in, and so all Israel should be saved.” (Rationalization of the Psalms, Historic Christian Writers, ed. W.J. Burghardt and T.C. Lawler, 53:22-23)
Catechism of the Catholic Church
-“The ‘full inclusion’ of the Jews in the Messiah’s salvation, in the wake of ‘the full number of Gentiles’, (Rom 11:12, Luke 21:24) will enable the People of God to achieve ‘the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ’ in which ‘God may be all in all.’” (CCC 674)
The Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture
-“The time will come when the present problem of Israel’s exclusion from the salvation of the Messias will cease to exist because of her conversion, which will follow the conversion of the Gentiles.” (The Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture, edited by Bernard Orchard)
-“The Jews are still in a specia l relationship with God; they are ‘loved on account of the patriarchs’ (Romans 11:28-29). Jews who reject Jesus as Messiah forfeit the blessings of the covenant because of unbelief; they are ‘broken off because of unbelief’ (11:20). But the blessings of the covenant are still open to them (Romans 9:1-5). This means that God has not finished with the Jewish people. ‘Did God reject his people?’ asks Paul; and his answer is ‘By no means!’ (Romans 11:1). ‘God’s gifts and his call are irrevocable’ (Romans 11:29). There is something better to look forward to for them: ‘and so all Israel will be saved’ (11:26). But the only source of salvation for them, as for every other human being, is in Christ. When Jews believe in Jesus as Messiah, in Paul’s picture of the olive tree, they are ‘grafted back into their own olive tree’ (Romans 11:23-24)… ‘Israel’ in this verse [11:26] probably does mean ‘the Jewish people’ and not ‘the Church’. In all the other thirteen instances in these chapters where he uses ‘Israel’, he clearly means ‘the Jewish people’ (9:4, 6, 27, 31; 10:1, 16, 19, 21; 11:1,2, 7, 11, 25). If Paul here understands ‘Israel’ as ‘the Church’, he is using the word in two consecutive sentences with two very different meanings.” (Whose Promised Land?, p. 223, 227)
-“The unbelief is not universal, but only “in part.”… And, so right here too [Romans 11:25-26] he says what he had stated above, “God hath not cast off His people whom He foreknew” (Rom. xi. 2): and again, “What then? Have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid” (ib. 11): This then he says here additionally; that it isn’t the whole individuals that is pulled up, however many have already believed, and more are more likely to consider. Then as he had promised a fantastic thing, he adduces the prophet in evidence, talking as follows. Now it isn’t for the very fact of a blindness having occurred that he quotes the passage (for every one might see that), but that they shall consider and be saved, he brings Isaiah to witness, who crieth aloud and saith, ‘There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob.’ (Isaiah 59:20.)… If then this has been promised, however has never but occurred of their case, nor have they ever enjoyed the remission of sins by baptism, definitely it is going to come to cross… but [God] waiteth for all the Gentiles which might be to consider to return in, after which they (the Jews) additionally shall come.” (Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, NPNF, Vol. 11, p. 493; word: in lots of other homilies Chrysostom speaks of the ultimate conversion of the Jews)
Gordon H. Clark
-“When this fullness occurs, then the great majority of the Jews shall be saved also. This ultimate conversion of the Jews was prophesied in the Old Testament.” (The Biblical Expositor, Vol. 3, p. 254)
-“The restoration of the Jewish commonwealth, in a higher degree than seems to be yet accomplished, is, as we have before observed, frequently spoken of in the prophetic writings.” (Commentary on the Entire Bible; observe: Coke was John Wesley’s right-hand man.)
John William Colenso
-“It may be that here… St. Paul imagines that the Deliverer would come, and iniquity be turned away from Jacob, by the Jews, as a nation, embracing the Gospel, and all Israel, the whole believing Family, whether originally Jews or Heathens, ‘be saved’ from the wrath revealed against all willful sin and disobedience.” (St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, p. 216; notice, Colenso does the same factor as Calvin: interprets ‘Israel’ the entire Church, however accepts the salvation of the Jews. This idea shouldn’t be false, but the question is wh ether it is Paul’s level in 11:25-26.)
-“”All Israel” means Israel as an entire in contrast to the relatively small believing remnant of Jews. The context makes this clear. This conclusion does not require that every individual Israelite dwelling will probably be saved. It solely requires the salvation of the bulk of the nation (cf. Zechariah 12-13).” (Expository Notes)
-“But precisely what is supposed by ‘all Israel’? There are three main views: (1) ‘all Israel’ means ethnic Israel as an entire; (2) it means the whole of religious Israel, together with both believing Jews and believing Gentiles; and (3) it means the remnant portion of ethnic Israel. In my judgment this final view is right.
This third (right) strategy says that ‘all Israel’ means all believing Jews in all generations. Thus in v. 26 the time period ‘Israel’ is taken in a barely totally different sense as in contrast with v. 25 and elsewhere. I.e., it might be true that the mass of Israel has been hardened (v. 25), but all of true Israel shall be saved (v. 26). They are going to be saved not in a single mass conversion however in the regular means of evangelism, being delivered to religion in Christ and added to his church over the whole course of church historical past.
What reasons can we give in help of this interpretation of ‘all Israel’? The primary argument is that (contrary to the claims of some) it is in line with the best way Paul uses the term ‘Israel’ in 9-11. To say that Paul uses this time period elsewhere on this section only for ethnic Jews could also be true; however that does not have an effect on our view, which agrees that v. 26a refers to ethnic Jews. The one challenge is whether or not Paul uses the term solely in the sense of the nation as an entire, and 9:6 exhibits that he does not. In 9:6 Paul uses the term ‘Israel’ twice, first referring to the nation as an entire after which referring only to religious Israel, the remnant. In the Greek text of 9:6 these two makes use of are virtually consecutive, being separated by just one Greek word. Thus 9:6 is more than enough justification for relating to ‘Israel’ in 11:26a as referring to religious Israel, regardless that the same term in 11:25 refers to Israel as an entire.
The second argument for this place is that it’s totally according to the context basically. Some say that v. 26a have to be talking concerning the nation as an entire, because the status of the nation as an entire is strictly what 9-11 is all about: How can we reconcile Israel’s lostness with God’s faithfulness? However this is not the whole picture. It’s true that in 9-11 the unbelief of Israel basically is the problem, but additionally it is true that the existence of a remnant who consider is a part of the reply to the problem. Therefore the remnant idea is a outstanding theme in the context as an entire. See especially 9:6, 23-29; 11:1-7a.
Third, this view can also be in line with the road of thought Paul is creating in ch. 11 particularly. Has God rejected his individuals? No. Though most are hardened, he has a remnant. However is there any hope for many who are hardened? Joo. Particularly now that salvation has come to the Gentiles, all hardened Jews might consider in Jesus and grow to be a part of the remnant. Paul has simply declared that God can and will graft the broken-off branches again into the olive tree, conditioned upon their abandoning their unbelief (v. 23). In v. 24 Paul assures us that God will graft these pure branches again into the tree, but the condition of faith is obviously meant to be carried over from v. 23. The same is undoubtedly true in v. 26. When Paul says, ‘All Israel will be saved,’ in view of v. 23 we must perceive it as ‘all Israelites who believe in Jesus Christ—i.e. the remnant—will be saved.’ This exhibits the importance of translating houtos as ‘thus, in this way.’ When Paul says ‘in this way’ all Israel can be saved, he’s referring not just to the abstract assertion in v. 25, however to the extra full rationalization in vv. 11-24, including the emphasis on conditionality in vv. 23-24.
A fourth argument for our position is that it does justice to the word ‘all’ in ‘all Israel.’ Probably the most critical flaws of different interpretations is that they really do not take the phrase ‘all’ significantly. Typically it’s stated that the only Jews who’re saved are those who happen to be dwelling at and probably after some extent of time nonetheless in the future, and for a lot of it is just that remaining era of Jews who are saved. Most particular person Jews within the scores of generations earlier than that time are literally not saved. How can this be proof of the faithfulness of God towards ‘all Israel,’ if only the final era of Jews will truly be saved? But when ‘all Israel’ means ‘the entire remnant of Jews,’ then this refers to each believing Israelite in every era. All who meet the condition of v. 23 will probably be saved.
A fifth argument for our understanding is that it is in line with Paul’s educating in the following verses that ‘all Israel’ is being saved now. As we will quickly see, the OT texts cited as affirmation of v. 26a confer with the first coming of Jesus and to the present salvation from sin by God’s grace. They don’t confer with the Second Coming and to some future national restoration (Hendriksen, 2:380). Especially, in v. 31 Paul says it is God’s plan that the Jews ‘may now receive mercy as a result of God’s mercy to you [Gentiles]’.” (Romans, p. 436-Eight; notice: Cottrell’s interpretation is chock filled with hermeneutical errors and failure to know key concepts. He doesn’t do justice to Paul’s practice of thought, and fails completely to know the concept of Israel as a company entity.)
-“The most likely explanation of ‘all Israel’ is that it means the nation of Israel as a whole, though not necessarily including every individual member. We understand ‘shall be saved’ to refer to a restoration of the nation of Israel to God at the end of history, an eschatological event in the strict sense.” (Romans: A Shorter Commentary, p. 282)
-“It is only where the Church persists in refusing to learn this message, where it secretly—perhaps quite unconsciously—believes that its own existence is based on human achievement, and so fails to understand God’s mercy to itself, that it is unable to believe in God’s mercy for still unbelieving Israel, and so entertains the ugly and unscriptural notion that God has cast off His people Israel and simply replaced it by the Christian Church. These three chapters [Rom. 9-11] emphatically forbid us to speak of the Church as having once and for all taken the place of the Jewish people.” (A Crucial and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, ICC, Vol. 2, p. 448)
St. Cyril of Alexandria
-“Towards the end of time, Our Lord Jesus Christ will effect the reconciliation of His former persecutor Israel with Himself. Everybody who knows Holy Scripture is aware that, in the course of time, this people will return to the love of Christ by the submission of faith… Yes, one day, after the conversion of the Gentiles, Israel will be converted, and the Jews will be astonished at the treasure they will find in Christ.” (Commentary on Genesis, Bk. 5)
-“Although it was rejected, Israel will also be saved eventually, a hope which Paul confirms (Romans 11:26) by quoting this text of Scripture (Is. 59:21). For indeed, Israel will be saved in its own time and will be called at the end, after the calling of the Gentiles.” (Commentary on Romans, Bray, Romans, p. 298-299)
Robert L. Dabney
-“Before this second advent, the following events must have occurred… The general and national return of the Jews to the Christian Church. (Rom. 11:25, 26).” (Systematic Theology, ch. 44; notice: Dabney doesn’t locate the conversion of the Jews at the second coming of Christ, but he nonetheless affirms that Romans 11:25-26 train the conversion of the Jewish nation.)
-“[Francis] Watson contended that Paul’s ‘sole aim’ is to ‘maintain and defend’ the ‘separation of his Gentile Christian churches from the Jewish community.’ Watson’s Paul wanted the Jewish Christian congregation to ‘abandon their belief in the vital importance of observing the law of Moses’ and adopt ‘an attitude of sectarian separation from non-Christian fellow-Jews.’ They need to make a ‘final break.’ James Dunn found these assertions ‘astonishing.’ The apostle pointedly reminds the gentiles in Rom 11:11-32 that they have been grafted on as wild olive shoots to Israel’s tree and heritage. The gentiles do not form their own separate tree but are dependent upon Israel. Paul even looks forward to a day when ‘all Israel will be saved.’ Far from urging his audience to sever all ties with the Jews, the apostle holds out hope for his people and wants the gentile Romans to think similarly. He never asks the ‘weak’ to abandon their Jewish practices in 14:1 but calls instead for mutual acceptance (15:7). The Roman gentiles represent the fulfillment of the promises to ‘all’ Abraham’s seed (4:16). Abraham is the Jews’ and gentiles’ mutual ‘father’ in 4:12. Such logic is incomprehensible if, with Watson, Paul is urging a break from the synagogues.” (Fixing the Romans Debate, p. 50-51)
-“The Christian eschatology is, not surprisingly, a little bit different. But, indeed, only ‘a little bit,’ because Christian eschatology is formed by Jewish eschatology. In the New Testament there is no doubt that ‘salvation is from the Jews’ (John 4:22), and that in the end ‘all Israel will be saved (Rom. 11:26), because it is written, ‘The Deliverer will come from Zion.’ What Christians can find in Paul and the Gospel of John, Jews will find in the Mishnah, where it is stated, ‘All Israel has a share in the world to come’ (Sanhedrin 10:1).” (Opening Remarks to the First Deichmann Annual Lecture Collection, present in Larry Hurtado’s, How on Earth Did Jesus Develop into God? Historical Questions on Earliest Devotion to Jesus, p. 214)
-[Commenting on Is. 59:20]: “In Romans 11:26 the apostle quotes this word of God, which is sealed with “Thus saith Jehovah,” as a proof of the ultimate restoration of all Israel.” (Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Previous Testament)
-“For πάς Ισραήλ see 1 Kings 12:1, 2 Chron. 12:1. It means Israel as a whole. Paul is thinking of the historical people, as the contrast with Gentiles shows, but he is not thinking of them one by one. Israel a Christian nation, Israel as a nation a part of the Messianic kingdom, is the content of his thought. To make πάςʾ Ισραήλ refer to a ‘spiritual’ Israel, or to the elect, is to miss the mark: it foretells a ‘conversion of the Jews so universal that the separation into an elect remnant and the rest who were hardened shall disappear (Gifford).’” (Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, The Expositor’s Greek Testomony, Vol. 2, p. 683)
Ronald E. Diprose
-“So far as the meaning of Israel in verse 26 is concerned, the interpreter is obliged to attribute to it the same meaning it bears in verse 25. As there is no doubt that the reference in verse 25 is to ethnic Israel, we may conclude that Paul is speaking about the salvation of ethnic Israel in verse 26. The use of the proper name Jacob in verse 26 also provides further confirmation of this.” (Israel and the Church: The Origins and Effects of Alternative Theology, p.64)
-“O that the blessed time were come when all Israel shall be saved; when the Deliverer, who is long since come out of Zion, shall turn away iniquity from Jacob; and the fullness of the Gentiles be come in; so that from the rising to the going down of the sun, the Lord shall be one, and his name one! Our faith waits the glorious event, but it shall be seen, for the gifts and callings of God are without repentance.” (quoted in Henry and Scott, Commentary Upon the Holy Bible, Vol. 6, p. 80)
Dennis C. Duling
-“[Paul] concludes that as soon as the full number of ethnē come in, all Israel will be saved. As God has shown mercy to the non-Israelite ethnē, so he will show mercy to Israel.” (Understanding the Social World of the New Testament, editied by Dietmar Neufeld and Richard E. DeMaris, p. 87)
-“All Israel i.e. the Jewish race will enter the Christian Church.” (The One Volume Bible Commentary, p. 883)
-“Very briefly we touch on this department of the message of Romans, mainly to point out that the problem of Israel’s unbelief nowhere else in Paul appears as so heavy a load on his heart, and that on the other hand we nowhere else have anything like the light he claims to throw (Romans 11) on Israel’s future. Here, if anywhere, he appears as the predictive prophet, charged with the statement of a “mystery,” and with the announcement of its issues. The guarantees to Israel have by no means failed, nor are they canceled. At the worst, they have all the time been inherited by a selected remnant, Israel inside Israel. And a time is coming when, in a profound reference to Messianic blessing on the Gentiles, “all Israel shall be saved,” with a salvation which shall in flip be new life to the world outdoors Israel. All through the passage Paul speaks, not as one who “will not give up a hope,” however as having had revealed to him an enormous and particular prospect, in the divine objective.” (Romans, The Epistle to, International Normal Bible Encyclopedia)
James D.G. Dunn
-“Here at last the identity of Israel and its correlation with the elect of God are resolved. Parallel to the triple distinction of 11:7 (Israel, the elect, the rest) we now how ‘Israel partially hardened,’ ‘the full number of the Gentiles,’ and ‘all Israel.’ The first phrase indicates the whole people suffering from a partial blindness. The second deliberately parallels the final full acceptance of Israel (their pleroma—11:12) with the ‘full number (pleroma) of the Gentiles.’ And the third extends the scope as widely as possible—‘all Israel.’ There can be little doubt that by ‘Israel’ here Paul means the historic people of that name. 11:28-29 puts the issue beyond reasonable doubt. But it is now Israel defined primarily by God’s ‘election’ and ‘call’ (11:28, 29); the echo of 9:11-12 and 24 is equally clear. In other words, the split in the ‘I’ of Israel will be healed. The division between historic Israel and those called of God will disappear in the ‘full number’ of Israel and Gentiles. Paul continues to use ‘Israel’ for historic Israel, but no longer in an excluding way. When ‘all Israel’ is saved, then the split in the people of God will be healed, the eschatological tension resolved, and the Israel of God made whole.” (The Theology of Paul the Apostle, p. 527)
-“‘All Israel’… clearly functions in contrast to λείμμα [‘remnant’] (11:5), and τινές [‘some’] (11:17; Schlier) and indeed από μέρους [‘in part’] (11:25), as parallel to πλήρωμα [‘fullness’] (11:12).” (Romans 9-16, 681)
“Whatever may be doubted of their [the Jews] restoring to their land, yet they shall be brought to a visible Church-state. Not only in particular persons here and there in congregations; but that multitudes, yea, the whole body of them shall be brought, in a common way with the Gentiles, to profess Christ, which cannot be denied, as Romans 11 is clear and that will be enough to satisfy us.” (A Discovered and Full Commentary Upon the Ebook of Revelation, Lecture IV, Ch. XVI, p. 634; notice: 18th century scholar)
-“Without doubt, they [the Jews] will return to their own land; because when their unbelief ceases, their dispersion, the dreadful and signal punishment of their unbelief will cease too. As they have continued hitherto, with one consent, to dishonor Christ by rejecting the gospel, so shall they meet together to honor him, by openly professing of it with one mouth, and practice it with one heart and one soul, together lamenting their obstinacy, as it is said they shall (Zech. 12:11-12), and together praising God for his grace in enlightening them. And as they have hitherto continued a distinct nation, that they might continue a visible monument of his displeasure, for their rejecting and crucifying their Messiah, so after their conversion will they still be a distinct nation, that they may be a visible monument of God’s wonderful grace and power in their calling and conversion. . . . But yet, we are not to imagine that the old walls of separation will be set up again. . . . For they shall look upon all the world to be their brethren, as much as the Christians in Boston and the Christians in other parts of New England look on each other as brethren.” (Works, Yale, V, p. 135; footnote: “Iain Murray indicates that many English Puritans were of this same opinion concerning the national conversion and restoration of Israel. The Puritan Hope, pp. 175-8; “This same belief concerning the future of the Jews is to be found very widely in seventeenth-century Puritan literature. It appears in the works of such well-known Puritans as John Owen, Thomas Manton and John Flavel. … It is also handled in a rich array of commentaries, both folios and quartos – David Dickson on the Psalms, George Hutcheson on the Minor Prophets, Jeremiah Burroughs on Hosea, William Greenhill on Ezekiel, Elnathan Parr on Romans and James Durham on Revelation: a list which could be greatly extended.” (The Puritan Hope, 43)
-“Jewish infidelity shall be overthrown… The Jews in all their dispersions shall cast away their old infidelity and shall have their hearts wonderfully changed, and abhor themselves for their past unbelief and obstinacy. They shall flow together to the blessed Jesus, penitently, humbly and joyfully owning Him as their glorious King and only Savior, and shall with all their hearts, as one heart and voice, declare His praises unto other nations. Nothing is more certainly foretold than this national conversion of the Jews in Romans 11. Besides the prophecies of the calling of the Jews, we have a remarkable providential seal of the fulfillment of this great event by a kind of continual miracle, viz. their being preserved a distinct nation… The world affords nothing else like it. There is undoubtedly a remarkable hand of providence in it. When they shall be called, that ancient people, who alone were God’s people for so long a time, shall be His people, never to be rejected more. They shall be gathered together into one fold, together with the Gentiles.”
(The Works of Jonathan Edwards, vol. 1, Banner of Fact Trust, reprint, 1976, p. 607.
Mateen A. Elass
-“After having highlighted God’s sovereign, electing freedom in Romans 9 with regard to His promises toward Israel, and describing graphically in chapter 10 the consequences of the divine hardening for present-day Israel, Paul is poised to address in a final way the question of God’s faithfulness to Israel. Hence, 11.1 picks up this central theme once again with the leading question, ‘Has God then really rejected His people?’ The remainder of this chapter forms a series of arguments by which Paul demonstrates his conviction that Israel’s rejection is neither total nor permanent. In verses 1-10 the apostle essentially reviews ground already covered by appealing to a divine election of the remnant and a hardening of the rest of Israel. Verses 11 -24 see Paul shifting his v ision back and forth between contemporary, hardened Israel and future, redeemed Israel. Here Paul makes clear that in spite of Israel’s present condition, God views the nation in terms of His promises to the patriarchs and thus her positive destiny is assured. Though this brings no assurance that the present mass of unbelieving Israel will be saved, it leads Paul to the disclosure of a mystery: Israel’s hardening will continue until the Gentile mission is fulfilled, and then all Israel will be saved. In verses 25-32, Paul unfolds the elements of this revelation, cites supporting witnesses from the prophets, appeals to the continuity of Israel’s election for the sake of the patriarchs and because of the faithful nature of God, and finally concludes that God’s purposes for both Jews and Gentiles are shaped by mercy: the people of God are hardened in disobedience so that they may have no means of escape except through God’s mercy. By means of this climactic conclusion, Paul substantiates beyond doubt his opening claim in 9.6a that the word of God has not failed – God remains true to His purposes, which include the exercise of saving mercy toward ethnic Israel in the future. And this sovereign plan and ultimate mercy of God toward His people leads Paul to burst forth in a final paean of praise over the wisdom and glory of God (verses 33-36).” (Paul’s Understanding and Use of the Idea of Election in Romans 9-11, p. 189-90)
-“But even more damaging to both these modal interpretations is the fact they fail to support the central theme which Paul has been working toward since verse 11, the fact that all Israel will one day be saved. To this point, Paul has not directly stated his conviction that God will in the end show mercy to the hardened children of Abraham. Would it not be an abrupt leap of logic for Paul to argue the manner in which all Israel will be saved before he has overtly established its certain eventuality? Verse 26a provides the climax to the argument he began in 9.6b concerning the faithfulness of God toward Israel. The apostle’s principal interest lies not in the manner by which Israel will be saved, but in the more fundamental issue of whether God has ultimately abandoned her or not. The modal interpretation of καί ούτως fails to do justice to Paul’s argument by drawing attention away from the fact of Israel’s future return to the mode by which it will happen. This in turn fails to support Paul’s stated purpose of deflating Gentile Christian pride—for their contention was not over the manner in which Israel would be saved, but more fundamentally whether Israel would be saved at all.” (ibid., p. 244)
Charles J. Ellicott
-“When this ingathering of the Gentiles is complete, then the turn of Israel will come round again, and the prophecies of their conversion will be fulfilled.” (A New Testomony Commentary for English Readers, Romans)
-“Paul offers with Israel’s election in Romans 9-11, lamenting Israel’s rejection of Messiah (Rom. 9:1-Three; 10:1-5). Israel had great privileges however scorned them (Rom. 9:Four-5), yet since God has sovereignly elected Israel, He won’t fail in His objective for the nation. The truth that God has not abandoned His individuals (Rom. 11:1) is clear by the very fact that there’s a remnant of believing Jews, of which Paul was one (Rom. 11:1-5). Nevertheless, while Israel has been blinded, it’s short-term. Paul envisions a future day when Israel’s blindness can be lifted and ‘all Israel will be saved’ (Rom. 11:26). There will probably be a future nationwide turning to Christ in religion. Paul relates that occasion to the return of Messiah: ‘The Deliverer will come from Zion, He will remove ungodliness from Jacob’ (Rom. 11:26). (The Moody Handbook of Theology, p. 113)
-“Romans 11:26 states, ‘and thus all Israel shall be saved’—a reference to national Israel. From this statement it is clear there is a future for national Israel.” (ibid. p. 387)
-“Truly, in the eleventh chapter of Romans Paul gives us the fair hope that they [the Jews] shall someday convert and with us confess the true Messiah, and there shall be one shepherd and one flock. It is in this hope that we permit them to preserve themselves.” (quoted in Shimon Markish’s Erasmus and the Jews, p. 99)
-“This ‘all Israel’ or sum total of the believing nation is called in a previous message ‘their fulness’ and the argument is that when Israel is converted the whole Gentile world also will be converted.”
Millard J. Erickson
-“There is, however, a future for national Israel. They are still the special people of God. Having declared that Israel’s rejection has meant the reconciliation of the world, Paul asks, “What will their [Israel’s] acceptance be but life from the dead?” (Rom. 11:15). The longer term is shiny: “And so all Israel will be saved” (v.26). Yet Israel might be saved by getting into the church simply as to the Gentiles. There isn’t any assertion anyplace within the New Testament that there’s some other basis of salvation.” (Christian Theology, p. 1053)
ESV International Research Bible
-“It seems most likely that this salvation of the Jewish people is in the future. This interpretation fits with the promises of God’s future work in vv. 12 and 15, and the future salvation of ethnic Israel at the end of history agrees with the character of this passage. God is faithful to fulfill his saving promises to his people (9:6).” (edited by J.I. Packer, Wayne Grudem, Ajith Fernando)
Andrew R. Fausset
-“The casting away of the Jew, though most sad, is neither universal now (for there is a remnant according to the election of grace, and God’s foreordaining is to be accepted not criticized by finite man), nor final, for “all Israel shall be saved” within the coming age, and their being acquired can be as life from the lifeless to the Gentile world (Romans 9; Romans 11).” (Romans, The Epistle to the, Fausset’s Bible Dictionary)
-“As some, reserved of God through the election of grace, owned Christ as Lord in the days of Paul, so when the fulness of the Gentiles shall have been brought in, the great majority of the Israelitish people are to be called, through the gospel, to the God of their salvation, and shall profess and own Jesus Christ, whom, formerly, that is, during the time of harden ing, they denied…. This interpretation of the passage is most pertinent to the scope of the present discussion; but because that recall of the Israelites is not yet witnessed in respect to the majority, most interpreters explain the passage differently, and understand what the apostle here says “all Israel shall be saved”, of Israel in spirit, and in addition of all Israelites in response to the flesh, who at any time have believed, whether or not in occasions of apostasy, as have been those of Ahab and Paul, or of open career, as that of David, or of reformation, as these of Hezekiah and Josiah. In this means the which means might be “that the Gentiles having been added, through the gospel, to the people of God, that is, to the Israelites, who are Israelites in spirit, as well as according to the flesh, “all Israel´, viz. Israel in the spirit, consisting of the elect from among Jews and Gentiles, “shall be saved´ at the second coming of Christ.” (observe: 16th century commentator; Ferme states his opinion that the first interpretation is truest to the text, then explains why, regardless of this, other commentators see it otherwise: not for textual, however for historical, causes.)
Robert Verrell Foster
-“And so. Referring to the coming in of the Gentiles as the condition upon which will follow the salvation of Israel. All Israel shall be saved. An explicit and important prophecy. Some commentators, as Bengel, Olshausen, and others, limit the worlds ‘all Israel’ to the totality of the believing remnant. Of every generation of Jewish history there will be some who accept Christ as the true Messiah and Savior, and all these shall be saved. Others, as Luther, Calvin, and Grotius, limit the words to the spiritual Israel, whether composed of Jews or Gentiles or both. Others, as Fritzsche and Tholuck, make the words, ‘all Israel,’ mean comparatively all, the greater number. None of these views, however, meets the requirements of the context or the demands of the explicit form of the statement which Paul here makes. The words mean the whole nation of Israel; there shall come a time when there shall no longer be a rejected, unbelieving portion, but the entire Israel shall accept Christ. This is, in substance, the view of Stuart, Hodge, Meyer, Godet, and many others… There shall no longer be any distinction recognized between saved and unsaved Israel; no longer any such things as Judaism in the present sense of the term, but only a Christianity.” (A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, p. 325-326)
-“‘It is almost incredible,’ says Godet, ‘that our Reformers should have held out so obstinately, as they have done, against a thought so clearly expressed’—the future salvation of the Jewish people as predicted in the above passage; though it is not necessary to understand the Apostle Paul here as committing himself to any view concerning the ‘millennium.’ Olshausen on this verse quotes some remarkable words of Luther, as follows: ‘A Jewish heart is so stock-stone-devil-iron-hard, that in no wise can it be moved; they are young devils; damned to hell; to convert these devil’s brats [as some fondly ween out of the Epistle to the Romans] is impossible.’ And adds: ‘From this, as from other expressions, it is manifest that the knowledge of the last events of the world’s history was a province closed against the great Reformer’—as it was indeed against all the Reformers, as they devoted but little attention to the study of eschatology. The Gentile Church, however, is more and more clearly recognizing its indebtedness to the Jews, and is more and more earnestly repaying it. Luther and the other Reformers, if they were living now, would write and act in a very different manner in respect to this cast off people.” (A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, p. 325)
Arno C. Gaebelein
-“All Israel, that is, the all Israel living in the day will be saved, when the Deliverer comes out of Zion (Is. 59:20; Ps. 14:7). It is the second, visible, personal and glorious coming of the Lord Jesus Christ.”
James Leo Garrett
-“Various exegetes such as R.C.H. Lenski, William Hendriksen, and Dale Moody have reckoned ‘all Israel’ to refer to ‘the elect remnant of the Jews,’ or ‘all the believing Israelitees,’ who are being gathered to the Messiah throughout the era between the Messiah’s two advents. [This] interpretation seems to be most viable, partly because it interprets Rom. 11:26a in the light of Rom. 9:6b and takes houtos in a modal sense. Hence all Jewish people who have been, are, and will yet be yielding in faith to Jesus as the Messiah and the Son of God are the beneficiaries of God’s electing grace and members of the people of the New Covenant.” (Systematic Theology, Vol. 2, p. 480-1; word: Garrett’s view is simplistic. He utterly fails to comply with Paul’s practice of thought, and he additionally fails to appreciate how different views accommodate Rom. 9:6, and using houtos in 11:26.)
-“All Israel. This does not mean every individual Israelite, but Israel as a whole; not the spiritual Israel (the Christian Church), or the elect remnant, but the historical nation (taken in its totality without any emphasis on the members of it). Paul here is taking a broad general view of the Jewish nation and the Gentile nations. As regards the eternal destiny of individuals, he here says absolutely nothing.” (Romans, The Century Bible, p. 250)
Geneva Bible Notes
-“He [Paul] speaks of the whole nation, not of any one part. The blindness of the Jews is neither so universal that the Lord has no elect in that nation, neither will it be continual: for there will be a time in which they also (as the prophets have foretold) will effectually embrace that which they now so stubbornly for the most part reject and refuse.”
-“He [Paul] sheweth that the time shall come that the whole nation of the Jewes, though not every one particularly, shall be joined to the Church of Christ.”
-“And so all Israel shall be saved, Meaning not the mystical spiritual Israel of God, consisting both of Jews and Gentiles, who shall appear to be saved in the Lord with an everlasting salvation, when all God’s elect among the latter are gathered in, which is the sense many give into; but the people of the Jews, the generality of them, the body of that nation, called “the fulness” of them, Rom. 11:12, and relates to the latter day, when a nation of them shall be born again directly; when, their number being because the sand of the sea, they shall come up out of the lands where they’re dispersed, and appoint them one head, Christ, and great shall be the day of Jezreel; once they as a physique, even the far higher part of them that shall be in being, shall return and search the Lord their God, and David their King; shall acknowledge Jesus to be the true Messiah, and shall look to him, consider on him, and be saved by him from wrath to return. There’s a widespread saying amongst them, כל ישראל יש להם חלק לעולם הבא, “all Israel shall have a part”, or “portion in the world to come”; and in help of this they often produce the passage in Isa. 60:21, “thy people also shall be all righteous.”” (John Gill’s Exposition of the Whole Bible)
-“We have already said that there can be no question here of applying the term Israel to the spiritual Israel in the sense of Gal. 6:16. It is no less impossible to limit its application, with Bengel and Olshausen, to the elect portion of Israel, which would lead to a tautology with the verb shall be saved… And what would there be worthy of the term mystery (v. 25) in the idea of the salvation of all the elect Israelites!” (Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, p. 411)
Ezra P. Gould
-“The stock of God’s people is still the Jews, and the Gentiles have been grafted into that stock. That is, they have inherited the Jewish Scriptures and the Jewish Messiah. And God’s purpose in regard to Israel remains unchanged. When once the gathering of the Gentiles is complete, God means to stir up the Jews to jealousy, and ultimately to bring in all Israel.” (The Biblical Theology of the New Testament, p. 72)
Leslie M. Grant
-“When the full number of Gentiles is saved, God will open Israel’s eyes. “And so all Israel shall be saved.” But how is that this to return about? By the instrumentality of the Gentile Church preaching the gospel to Jews? Under no circumstances. It isn’t to be by faith in an absent Christ, however in One whom they shall see visibly, coming out of Sion, to show away ungodliness from Jacob. Once they see they’ll consider.” (Commentary on the Bible)
-“Chapter 11 exhibits that the setting aside of the nation has not been perpetual. In the first place, there was a remnant of the trustworthy even these days, of whom the apostle was one (vv. 1-6). Indeed, there all the time had been such a remnant. There was one in Elijah’s day (cf. vv. 2-7 with 1 Kings 19:18). There was one in Isaiah’s day (Isa. 1:9). Through the captivity there was such a remnant, and on the end of the 70 years a remnant returned to the land. Take a look at Luke 2:38 for one at the period of the first creation of Christ. There are believing Jews in our day who constitute such a class, and we have now seen in our Previous Testomony research that the prophecies give attention to the deliverance of the remnant through the tribulation (Rev. 7:3-8). It is of the hopes and fears of this last-named that the Millennial psalms deal with.
In the second place this chapter signifies that the national blindness of the Jews had been foretold (vv. 7-10). But in the windfall of God it gave a chance to the Gentiles (vv. 11, 12), which the latter are warned to profit by (vv. 13-22). throughout this warning there are several intimations of the restoration of Israel as a nation (vv. 12, 15, 16). That is what is meant by “their fullness,” “the receiving of them,” and so forth. The “first-fruit” and the “root” are Abraham, and the “lump” and the “branches” the offspring that came from him.
Finally, it’s undoubtedly said that the nation shall be restored (vv. 23-36), by which is supposed the trustworthy remnant at the end of the age. The “fullness of the Gentiles” (v. 25) means the completion of God’s function in them at that time, i.e., the entire body of Christ, the Church, could have been referred to as out from amongst them, and caught up to meet Him in the air (1 Thess. 4:13-18). Observe the reference to Christ’s second coming in verse 26, and to the achievement of God’s unique promise to Abraham in verse 29. “Without repentance” means and not using a change of mind on His half.” (Christian Worker’s Commentary on the Previous and New Testaments, Romans)
Pope Gregory the Great
-“We know, my friends, that at the end of the world even Judea will be brought to faith in the Redeemer. Paul testifies to this by saying: “Until the fullness of the Gentiles comes in, and thus all Israel is saved.” (Forty Gospel Homilies, Homily 22)
-“I affirm the conviction that Rom. 9-11 teaches a future large-scale conversion of the Jewish people.” (Systematic Theology, p. 861)
Robert H. Gundry
-“‘All Israel’ means all biological Israelites… Paul assumes, then, that his audience will understand all Israel to be saved by believing in Jesus. Paul’s concern relates here to the time when this salvation will occur, not with its means. So after identifying the time as when ‘the fullness of the Gentiles has come in,’ he uses Old Testament scripture to pinpoint the time at the second coming of Jesus, to which the prophecy, ‘The rescuer will come out of Zion,’ refers in Paul’s interpretation. ‘The rescuer’ is Jesus, and his ‘com[ing] out of Zion’ is his exiting heaven (the Zion above [compare Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 14:1-3]) for a descent to earth. It’s on this occasion that all biological Israel will be saved by Jesus’ turning ungodliness away from them (‘Jacob’) and by the Lord’s fulfilling his covenant with Israel by taking away their sins (see Isaiah 59:20-21); Jeremiah 31:33-34 for ‘covenant’). That only a remnant of Israel are being saved during the present period of massive Gentile salvation means that all Israel who’ll be saved at the second coming will consist only, but massively, of Israelites living at that time.” (Commentary on Romans)
-“In spite of previous adverse statements there are mitigating circumstances for the rejection has never been total. There has always been a remnant chosen by grace and it is with this remnant that the hope of the future lies. In any case the fall of Israel has prompted the conversion of the Gentiles, through whose agency they will themselves be restored. This is illustrated by the olive-tree allegory. But there is no place for Gentile boasting for God intends the full restoration of Israel. Such thoughts as these call forth in the apostle’s mind an expression of amazement at the inscrutable wisdom of God.” (New Testomony Introduction, p. 418)
-“All Israel will probably be saved: This all Israel isn’t religious Israel. It isn’t “spiritual Israel” in Romans 11:25, as a result of that Israel is spiritually blind. Subsequently, we shouldn’t regard it as religious Israel in Romans 11:26… One other proof that this is not religious Israel is because Paul says this can be a thriller – and it is no thriller that religious Israel might be saved.”
-“The point of the parallel to Elijah is not that Elijah or Paul or the small remnant of the Jews that are currently being saved (cf. 9:27-29) are all alone. The point is the promise to Elijah and to the remnant of Paul’s day that their experience points forward to the salvation of a greater number. Rather than judgment on all the rest, the significance of the small, persecuted remnant is that their experience is a symbol of hope for the future of the people.” (The Salvation of Israel in Romans 11:25-32, p. 49)
-“It is one thing to posit a future salvation of Israel that will fulfill God’s word, but it is quite another to show how God is being faithful now to his promises to Israel in spite of the fact that most of those who belong to Paul’s “kinsmen according to the flesh (9:3) have rejected the Messiah. In regard to the trustworthiness of God’s character, faithfulness in the future is worthless without faithfulness in the present.” (ibid., p. 44)
-“‘All Israel’ relates to the Israelite people of actual history, who are now despising their salvation… The offer of salvation will again be made to Israel, which will again be faced with a decision about belief, and as a believing Israel will attain salvation… But if in the case of that first decision about belief it was only a small fraction that accepted the message, it will at some future time be the ‘fullness’ of the Jews (cf. Romans 11:12) who will acknowledge their Lord.” (Mission within the New Testament, p. 106-107)
-“In the foregoing verse he had declared that blindness had encounter Israel—that blindness which he before shown was inflicted on part of the Jewish nation by the judgment of God, verse 8-10, which would continue till a certain interval was completed. He now declares that at that interval all Israel shall be saved. The rejection of Israel has been common, however at no interval universal. This rejection is to continue till the fullness of the Gentiles shall are available. Then the individuals of Israel, as a body, shall be delivered to the faith of the Gospel. Such expressions as that “all Israel shall be saved,” are little question, in sure conditions, able to limitation; but as no Scripture demands any limitation of this expression, and as the opposition right here said is between an element and all, there isn’t a warrant to make any exception, and with God this, like all different issues, is possible.” (Commentary on Romans, p. 549)
Henry H. Halley
-“Israel’s Rejection of Christ is temporary. The days will come when all Israel shall be Saved (26). When or how that will be is not here stated. Nor is it stated whether it will be in connection with their Return to Palestine, but merely the bare fact that it will be. One of the darkest spots in the panorama of human history is the age-long Suffering of this Sorrowful, Disobedient people. But one day it will end. Israel shall turn in penitence to the Lord. And all creation shall give thanks to God for the Unsearchable Wisdom of His Providence.” (Halley’s Bible Handbook, p. 590)
Douglas R.A. Hare
-“While Matthew’s negative theology concerning Israel is historically understandable in view of the unhappy experience of Jewish-Christian missionaries, his presentation of God’s deselection of Israel must be placed within the broader context of Paul’s reflection on this question. Paul contended that Israel’s negative response to the gospel can by no means deter a faithful God from pursuing his plan for Israel, ‘for the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable’ (Rom. 11:29). The ‘hardening’ that has come upon Israel provides the opportunity for taking the gospel to the Gentiles; when the full number of the Gentiles has entered the church, ‘all Israel will be saved’ (Rom. 11:26). At that point, Matthew’s polemic will have been superseded.” (Matthew, p. 272-Three)
-“According to Paul, God’s covenant with Israel has not been revoked (Rom 11:29), and in the end he expects that ‘all Israel will be saved’ (Rom. 11:26).” (Historic Dictionary of Jesus, p. 40)
Stephen L. Harris
-“In Chapters 9-11, Paul discusses Israel’s continuing role as God’s chosen people, even though most have not accepted Jesus as the national messiah. Paul suggests that his fellow Jews misunderstand God’s purpose in Christ because they seek salvation through Torah obedience, allegedly depending on their own efforts to earn divine approval. True ‘children of Abraham,’ however, recognize the necessity of placing faith in Christ. Jews withhold their faith, but the Gentiles benefit from this refusal. In a famous analogy, Paul compares Gentile believers to branches from a wild olive tree that have been grafted onto the cultivated olive trunk, which is Israel. Paul also assumes that Israel’s unbelief is only temporary. After the Gentiles have been attached to the main trunk, then the natural branches will be regrafted onto God’s olive tree and ‘the whole of Israel will be saved’ (11:16-27).” (Understanding the Bible, p. 490; observe: Harris, a non-evangelical scholar, appears to say that ‘all Israel’ consists of both Gentiles and Jews, and yet nonetheless sees Paul as educating that the Jewish nation might be saved.)
-“I stay not to make observations upon what is so abundantly plain as to need no observation, that, what the Apostle hath said, respecting the rejection of the Jew, and the calling of the Gentile, refers to the several ministrations in the Church, in the different ages, and under the different dispensations of it. Christ’s Church is but one. And that Church hath been set up, with her glorious Head, and Husband, from everlasting. Their names all given, and numbered. And hence, all Israel that is, all the true Israel of God, given by the Father to the Son, and redeemed from the Adam nature of the fall by the Son, shall be saved; and in the effectual call of God the Spirit, shall be brought to the knowledge of the truth. And these blessed events are included in what is said, and as the Prophet foretold, of the Deliverer coming out of Zion, to turn away ungodliness from Jacob, Isaiah 59:20.” (The Poor Man’s Commentary; notice: although Hawker says that his observations are abundantly plain, he provides no exegetical proof of them. Nearly all of commentators disagree with him.)
Fr. Leo Haydock
-“The nation of the Jews is not absolutely and without remedy cast off forever; but in part only and for a time: which fall of theirs God has been pleased to turn to the good of the Gentiles. “How much more the fullness of them (Jews)”: As if he should say, if the obstinacy of so many Jews seem to be an occasion upon which God …hath bestowed the riches of his grace on different nations; and whereas the glory of the Jews, the elect individuals of God, has been diminished, the Gentiles have been made completely satisfied: how far more superb will be the fullness of them? That is, in response to the widespread interpretation, would be the re-establishment and conversion of the Jews hereafter, earlier than the top of the world?… Then the receiving of them into the Church, and their conversion to Christ, shall be like life from the lifeless, when the Jewish individuals normally, shall rise from the demise of sin…to the lifetime of grace… and then all Israel must be saved, once they shall submit to the faith of Christ.” (New Testomony Complete Catholic Commentary, Romans 11:12-15, 25-26)
-“ This approach of the Jews to the true faith, after the vocation of the Gentiles, is spoken of by St. Paul in Romans 11:25. Blindness in part has happened in Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles should come in. And so all Israel should be saved. St. Chysostom, homily 1xvi—As it is written, “there shall come out of Sion, he that shall deliver, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob. And this is to them my covenant”. This prophecy of Isaias (lxi20) St. Paul applies to the conversion of the Jews, and thus each Jew and Gentile are to take up our Saviour’s yoke, which is definitely sweet and his burden mild.” (New Testomony Comprehensive Catholic Commentary, Matthew 21:2)
-“The nation at large has not embraced the worship of idols since the former period. But it will not be perfectly converted, until the fullness of the Gentiles come in….And so all Israel be saved. (Rom XI 25). C. – St. Paul terms their present state a blindness in part, because, though few have embraced the revelation of God, made to all by his only Son, the far greater part have obstinately shut their eyes…they seem to have a veil on them. But, after, they shall have been the sport of their passions and errors till the latter time, when the man of sin shall be fully revealed, they will see how wretchedly they have been deluded, and, the grace of God touching their hearts, they will remember the covenant, and embrace Christ, the end of all the law. Happy those who do not defer their conversion till that awful period!” (On Deuteronomy Four:30)
-“‘And will turn away iniquity from Jacob.’ St. Paul hence proves that the Jews will eventually be converted. Romans 11:26. (On Isaiah 59:20)
Richard B. Hays
-“Consequently, to read Paul’s citation of Isa. 52:5 as unqualified condemnation of Israel is bad reading, or, more precisely, it is an interpretation possible only on a first reading of the letter. The letter’s rhetorical structure lures the reader into expecting Israel’s final condemnation, but the later chapters undercut such an expectation, requiring the reader in subsequent encounters with the text to understand the Isaiah quotation more deeply in relation to its original prophetic context. Paul depicts God scolding Israel, like a parent chiding a child who has brought dishonor to the family, only because Israel’s covenant relation with God remains intact, as many other passages both in Isaiah and in Romans will insist. In Romans 2 the citation of Isaiah functions as a word of judgment; however, the judgment carries with it the same implicit promise that sustained Israel in captivity. Thus, even in the portion of Paul’s argument that seems to the threaten Jewish identity most radically, the scriptural quotation evokes, metaleptically, echoes of the promise that God, in vindicating his name, will also redeem Israel.” (Echoes of Scripture within the Letters of Paul, p. 46)
-“One other factor that certified this doctrine of the Jews’ rejection is that, although for the current they’re forged off, but the rejection is just not remaining; but, when the fulness of time is come, they will be taken in again. They don’t seem to be forged off for ever, however mercy is remembered within the midst of wrath. Allow us to observe,
How this conversion of the Jews is here described. (1.) It’s stated to be their fulness (Rom_11:12), that is, the addition of them to the church, the filling up again of that place which turned vacant by their rejection. This might be the enriching of the world (that’s, the church on the planet) with quite a lot of mild and power and wonder. (2.) It’s referred to as the receiving of them. The conversion of a soul is the receiving of that soul, so the conversion of a nation. They shall be acquired into favour, into the church, into the love of Christ, whose arms are stretched out for the receiving of all those that may come to him. And this can be as life from the lifeless – so strange and shocking, and but withal so welcome and acceptable. The conversion of the Jews will convey nice pleasure to the church. See Luk_15:32, He was lifeless, and is alive; and subsequently it was meet we should always make merry and be glad. (3.) It is referred to as the grafting of them in again (Rom_11:23), into the church, from which that they had been damaged off. That which is grafted in receives sap and virtue from the basis; so does a soul that’s really grafted into the church obtain life, and power, and beauty from Christ the quickening root. They shall be grafted into their own olive-tree (Rom_11:24); that’s, into the church of which that they had previously been probably the most eminent and conspicuous members, to retrieve those privileges of seen church-membership which that they had so long loved, however have now sinned away and forfeited by their unbelief. (4.) It is referred to as the saving of all Israel, Rom_11:26. True conversion might be referred to as salvation; it is salvation begun. See Act_2:47. The including of them to the church is the saving of them… The Jews are in a way a holy nation (Exo_19:6), being descended from holy mother and father. Now it cannot be imagined that such a holy nation ought to be totally and eventually forged off.” (Commentary on the Entire Bible)
-“Another thing that qualifies this doctrine of the Jews rejection is that though for the present they are cast off, yet the rejection is NOT final; but, when the fullness of time is come, they will be taken in again. They are not cast off for ever, but mercy is remembered in the midst of wrath… The Jews shall continue in blindness, till God hath performed his whole work among the Gentiles, and then their turn will come next to be remembered. This was the purpose and ordination of God, for wise and holy ends; things should not be ripe for the Jews’ conversion till the church was replenished with the Gentiles, that it might appear that God’s taking them again was not because he had need of them, but of his own free grace.”
-“The restoration of the Jews is, in the course of things, far less improbable than the call of the Gentiles to be the children of Abraham; and though others now possess these privileges, it will not hinder their being admitted again. By rejecting the gospel, and by their indignation at its being preached to the Gentiles, the Jews were become enemies to God; yet they are still to be favoured for the sake of their pious fathers. Though at present they are enemies to the gospel, for their hatred to the Gentiles; yet, when God’s time is come, that will no longer exist, and God’s love to their fathers will be remembered. True grace seeks not to confine God’s favour. Those who find mercy themselves, should endeavour that through their mercy others also may obtain mercy. Not that the Jews will be restored to have their priesthood, and temple, and ceremonies again; an end is put to all these; but they are to be brought to believe in Christ, the true become one sheep-fold with the Gentiles, under Christ the Great Shepherd. The captivities of Israel, their dispersion, and their being shut out from the church, are emblems of the believer’s corrections for doing wrong; and the continued care of the Lord towards that people, and the final mercy and blessed restoration intended for them, show the patience and love of God.” (Matthew Henry Concise Commentary)
-“The words all Israel (πάς Ισραήλ) present yet another difficulty. At least four different interpretations have been advanced in an attempt to exegete this phrase. First, it is affirmed that all Israel refers to the elect of all time; from both Jew and Gentile (Calvin, 255). This is quite untenable given the distinction between Israel and Gentiles throughout this whole section (9-11; cf. Murray, 97). Second, some say all Israel refers to the elect within the nation, but this makes the “shall be saved” superfluous and redundant. It is fairly apparent that each one elect Jews shall be saved (Cranfield, 577). Third, some say that each one Israel refers back to the nation as an entire including each Israelite at the time. Nevertheless, the phrase all Israel was widespread in Jewish rabbinical writings (which Paul uses) to confer with the nation as an entire, however not essentially every particular person in it (Ezek. 20:34-38; Bruce, 222; Harrison,123). Fourth, all Israel refers back to the nation as an entire, excepting some people and the remnant spoken of in 9:27 is just a reference to a “stage in Israel’s salvation history on this earth” (Black,160). This view seems most agreeable with the context and the extra-biblical use of the phrase all Israel.” (Israel’s Current Hardening and Future Salvation: An Exegesis of Romans 11:25-32)
Archibald Alexander Hodge
-“Show that the future general conversion of the Jews is taught in Scripture? This Paul, in Romans 11:15–29, both asserts and proves from Old Testament prophecies, e.g., Isaiah 59:20; Jeremiah 31. See also Zechariah 12:10; 1 Corinthians 3:15, 16.” (The Second Creation and Common Judgment)
-“Israel, here, from the context must mean the Jewish people, and all Israel, the whole nation. The Jews, as a people, are now rejected; as a people they, they are to be restored. As their rejection, although national, did not include the rejection of every individual; so their restoration, although in like manner national, need not be assumed to include the salvation of every individual Jew. Πάςʾ Ισραήλ is not therefore to be here understood to mean, all the true people of God, as Augustin, Calvin, and many others explain it; nor all the elect Jews, i.e., all that part of the nation which constitute ‘the remnant according to the election of grace;’ but the whole nation, as a nation.” (Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, p. 589)
-“The second great event, which, according to the common faith of the Church, is to precede the second advent of Christ, is the national conversion of the Jews…. The restoration of the Jews to the privileges of God’s people is included in the ancient predictions and promises made respecting them….The future restoration of the Jews is, in itself, a more probable event than the introduction of the Gentiles into the church of God.” (Systematic Theology, Vol. III)
Harold W. Hoehner
-“The context speaks of Israel’s rejection of Messiah and her hardening which was to continue until the time when the fullness of the Gentiles should come in. Then, in sharp contrast, at a particular moment in history, ‘all Israel’ will experience salvation.” (Israel: The Land and the Individuals, Israel in Romans 9-11, p. 156)
-“How, now, should the expression ‘and so all Israel will be saved’ be interpreted? Calvin, as we saw, thought these words referred to the salvation of the entire number of the elect all through history, not only from the Jews but in addition from the Gentiles. The problem with this interpretation, nevertheless, is that this: in Romans 9-11 the time period Israel happens eleven occasions; in every of the ten situations aside from 11:26 where the time period is used, it factors unmistakably to the Jews in distinction from the Gentiles. What purpose is there for accepting a unique which means of the term here? Why should Paul all of a sudden shift from the natural which means of the term Israel to a wider, figurative which means? Just isn’t the very level of Romans 11:25-26a to say something about both Jews and Gentiles?
The more widespread interpretation, as we also saw, understands this passage as pointing to a large-scale conversion of the nation of Israel both just before or on the time of Christ’s return, after the ingathering of the fullness of the Gentiles. There are, it appears to me, two fairly weighty objections to deciphering ‘and so all Israel will be saved’ in this method:
(1) The thought that the salvation of the individuals of Israel as here described happens solely at the end-time does not do justice to the word all in ‘all Israel.’ Does ‘all Israel’ mean simply the last era of Israelites? This final era can be just a fragment of the entire number of Jews who’ve lived on this earth. How can such a fragment correctly be referred to as ‘all Israel’?
(2) The text doesn’t say, ‘And then all Israel will be saved.’ If Paul had wished to convey this thought, he might have used a word which suggests then (like tote or epeita). However he used the word houtos, which describes not temporal succession however manner, and which suggests thus, so, or on this approach. In other phrases, Paul is just not saying, ‘Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in, and then (after this has happened) all Israel will be saved.’ But he is saying, ‘Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in, and in this way all Israel will be saved.’
In what approach? In the best way Paul has been describing in the earlier a part of the chapter: (a) by way of the unbelief of many Israelites salvation is coming to the Gentiles, and (b) by the salvation of the Gentiles Israelites are being moved to jealousy. This has been occurring prior to now, is occurring now, and will continue to happen.
I interpret the passage, then, as which means that God fulfills his guarantees to Israel within the following method: Although Israel has been hardened in its unbelief, this hardening has all the time been and will continue to be solely a partial hardening, never a total hardening. In other words, Israel will continue to show to the Lord until the Parousia, while at the similar time the fullness of the Gentiles is being gathered in. And on this means all Israel might be saved: not simply the last era of Israelites, however all true Israelites—all those who aren’t simply of Israel but are Israel, to make use of the language of Romans 9:6. One other approach of putting this is able to be: all Israel in Romans 11:26 means the totality of the elect among Israel. The salvation of all Israel, subsequently, doesn’t take place solely at the end-time, but takes place throughout the era between Christ’s first and second coming—actually, from the time of the call of Abraham. All Israel, subsequently, differs from the elect remnant spoken of in 11:5, however solely as the sum complete of all the remnants all through history.” (The Bible and the Future, p. 144-5; notice: Hoekema’s two objections fall brief as a result of 1) he fails to know the Biblical idea of Israel as a corporate entity; Paul has in thoughts the nation because the nation, not each particular person Jew that has ever lived; and a couple of) he fails to see how the normal view is suitable with the word houtos. He additionally underestimates the load of the argument relating to the contextual utilization of the phrase Israel.)
-“There is no doubt that πάς Ισραήλ at Rom. 11:26a refers only to Jews. The clause ‘all Israel shall be saved’, which foretells a future event, is clearly antithetical to the statement in v. 25b that God caused a partial hardening to fall upon Israel at the present, so that now only a few receive salvation, namely, the elect ‘remnant’ of 11:5, 7a. ‘All Israel’ thus means all Israel which at the present time does not (yet) believe in Christ and thus does not yet participate in salvation.” (“All Israel Will be Saved”: Divine Salvation and Israel’s Deliverance in Romans 9-11, The Princeton Seminary Bulletin, p. 35)
-“The apostle very plainly predicts Israel’s blindness is only going to last until the fulness of the Gentiles is come in. Then their eyes will be opened, and Israel as a whole will be saved.” (Romans)
Charles M. Horne
-“The context will not support the view that Israel means the Church. If it is argued that the phrase ‘and then all Israel shall be saved’ should be rendered ‘and so all Israel shall be saved’—meaning that the ingathering of the full number of Gentiles is in itself the salvation of all Israel—then it should be noted that a well-attested use of the Greek houtos, ‘so,’ ‘thus,’ is that of a temporal sense. Actually the context demands that we understand Israel to mean ethnic Israel. This is seen first when we consider what is meant by ‘their fulness’ (v. 12). Second, it is required when we note the subject of ‘if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in’ (v. 23). Third, it is supported by the parallel instituted between Jews and Gentiles in verses 30-33. Fourth, it is evident from the phrase ‘that he might show mercy to all’ (v. 32). Finally, in Romans 9-11 the term ‘Israel’ indisputably refers to ethnic Israel in each of its occurrences, the only possible exception being 11:26. What compelling reason can there be, therefore, to accept another meaning here?” (The Which means of the Phrase ‘And Thus All Israel Will Be Saved’, Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, p. 331-332; word: Horne doesn’t consider the which means refers to the nation of Israel, however to elect ethnic Jews only. He acknowledges as an incredible power that the national Israel view is accepted by scholars of each faculty: premillennial, amillennial, postmillennial, dispensationalist and non-dispensationalists, and so on.)
-“The which means of πάς Ισραήλ, is the important thing here. The context of v. 25 where “Israel” should seek advice from the nation as an entire is decisive, as is the consistent use in the other 9 situations in Romans 9-11 that never seek advice from Gentiles. The “all” incorporates the implied “remnant” and the “unbelieving remainder” of v. 25. Thus Murray feedback, “that it is exegetically impossible to give to ‘Israel’ in this verse any other denotation than that which belongs to the term throughout this chapter.” The remnant has not been explicitly mentioned since vs. 5, 7. Again in vs. 24-25, the regrafting is portrayed as climactic sooner or later, and never periodic throughout the church age. The suggestion that Israel right here is the accumulation of the remnant over the centuries, in accordance with Bavinck, Hoekema, Hendriksen, Palmer Robertson, is, in accordance with Schreiner, “stunningly anticlimactic,” Romans, p. 617. Reymond betrays this weak spot in stating: “This view still allows enough [emphasis added!] Jewish conversions to Christianity throughout this age to meet the demand of the ‘riches’ (ploutos, 11:12) and ‘life from the dead’ (11:15) which Paul envisions ‘all Israel’s’ salvation will bring to the world.” If only the remnant was in thoughts here with regard to this age, the current tense can be extra applicable. Moderately, “Israel will be saved [future tense]” parallels “will be engrafted [future tense]” in v. 24.” (The Epistle to the Romans, p. 335)
-“In the latter part of Romans, Paul wrote that ‘all Israel will be saved’ (11:26). A bit earlier he wrote that only ‘a remnant chosen by grace’ (11:5) will be saved out of Israel. He then proceeds to show us that ‘all Israel will be saved’ via an elect remnant.” (Putting Superb Again into Grace, p. 106; observe: Horton provides no proof of this declare. Paul says no such factor in chapter 11. He does not say that ‘all Israel will be saved via the remnant of grace’ however he contrasts the elect remnant in his day with ‘all Israel’ sooner or later: that’s, presently there’s a remnant based on the election of grace [Rom. 11:5]however the mystery is that when the fullness of the Gentiles has are available ‘all’ Israel shall be saved.)
Robert Hughes & J. Carl Laney
-“The promise of future restoration shows God’s equal mercy to Israel (11:25-32; also note 11:25-26, 29)… A divine ‘mystery’ (11:25) is something hidden in the counsels of God, not accessible except as God is pleased to make it known. In Romans 11:26-27 Paul quoted from Isaiah 59:20-21 and perhaps Isaiah 27:9 to show that Israel would one day be saved and enjoy the benefits of the new covenant.” (Tyndale Concise Bible Commentary, p. 538)
-“‘The Redeemer will come to Zion, to those in Jacob who repent of their sins’ (59:20). The apostle Paul cites this scripture in his treatise on the future of ethnic Israel in Romans 11. In answer to the question, has God finished with the Jews? he suggests an answer in two parts. First there is always a remnant of which he Paul was a representative. Second there is a larger gathering yet to be a fullness which will bring blessing as life from the dead (Rom 11:12,15, 25-36).” (The Superb Eschatological Dimensions of Isaiah)
Arland J. Hultgren
-“The covenant with Abraham is treated by Paul as particularly important soteriologically. At the end of his long discourse on the salvation of Israel in Romans 9 through 11, Paul concludes that ‘all Israel will be saved’ (11:26). That salvation will not come about by Israel’s righteousness under the law of Moses (i.e., keeping the Mosaic covenant) but purely by the grace of God, whose covenantal act will ‘banish ungodliness from Jacob’ (= Israel) and ‘take away their sins’ (11:26-27, perhaps recalling Jer. 31:34). All this will be due to God’s remaining faithfulness to his covenant with the patriarchs (11:28), particularly the covenant with Abraham.” (Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary, p. 357)
-“These words of the Apostle are not received in a uniform sense by expositors. Some understand, by the name of Israel, not the Jewish people, but all believers without distinction. There are others who think that, by this mystery, the Apostle wants to indicate that, before the day of judgment, a great multitude of Jews will be converted to the Christian faith. While neither interpretation is impious, yet when the entire context of the Apostle is more carefully examined, the latter explanation, I think, is more in harmony with the words and present purpose of Paul. For since what immediately precedes treats expressly of the Jewish people, and the Apostle himself so comprises this mystery concerning the salvation of Israel, as in what follows he clearly shows he is speaking of the Jews, the intermediate words seem also such as should be interpreted of the Jews. This is seen, besides, from the fact the Apostle calls it a mystery. But if the sense had been that all believers of every nation would be saved, this certainly was already known to the Roman Christians, and was not a new mystery. Furthermore, it is certain that these words are connected by the causal conjunction with those which are before, and depend on them, and are the reason or cause of the preceding assertion why the Jews could be inserted anew into their own olive tree.” (Thesaurus Apostolicus, complectens Commentarios in omnes Novi Testamenti Epistolas; observe: 16th century Lutheran commentator)
-“Here is held forth the future conversion and repentance of Israel, the full accomplishment whereof was not that which we read of in primitive times in Acts, but is yet to be accomplished when all their families concur in this work… The conversion of the Jews or Israel unto the Messiah is not to be of some few only, but national of the body of the people, and there will be real repentance among them for all the land shall mourn and all the families that remain, men and their wives.” (A Temporary Exposition of the Prophecies of Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi)
Reidar Hv alvik
-“As to the which means of ‘all Israel,’ there’s at this time virtually common agreement that ‘Israel’ right here
refers back to the Jewish individuals.” (A “Sonderweg” for Israel: A Crucial Examination of a Present Interpretation of Romans 11:25-27, p. 100)
Henry Eyster Jacobs
-“The entire context (verses 12, 23, 30, 32) forbids us to interpret this as the spiritual Israel, or even the comparatively small number of Israelites who, from time to time, will be converted to Christ. This argument of Paul loses all point in that way. It means that the Jewish nation will become a Christian nation, like others among whom the Gospel of Christ is externally revered and brings forth saving fruit in individual lives of a large multitude. This, then, does not necessarily mean that, at the time in prospect, every Jew will be brought to Christ; but the hostility of the race to Christ will cease, and large numbers of them become Christians both in profession and at heart. There seems to be no obscurity whatever about the prophecy.” (The Lutheran Commentary, Vol. VII, p. 239-240; word: see his wonderful dialogue of the interpretation of this verse in the Lutheran tradition)
-“Yet God rejected not all His people, but was still fulfilling His promises on many thousand natural descendants of Abraham, who believed in the Messiah, and at a future period would fulfill them upon more, since all Israel would be converted.” (The Comprehensive Commentary on the Holy Bible, p. 103)
-“Their sins occasioned the salvation of the Gentiles and again the incredulity of the Gentiles will occasion the conversion of Israel. You will find both in the Apostle (St. Paul).” (Commentary to the Music of Songs, Homily 1)
-“Because when the Jews receive the faith at the end of the world, they will find themselves in dazzling light, as if Our Lord were returning to them from Egypt.” (Commentary on St. Matthew, Ch. 2)
-“Behold, a ruler approached and was worshipping him, saying: ‘My daughter has just now died, but come, place your hand upon her, and she will live.’ And Jesus arose and followed him, and so did his disciples. This is the eighth sign, in which a ruler asks that his daughter be raised. He is unwilling to be excluded from the mystery of circumcision [note: Since circumcision took place on the eighth day, and since Paul had taught that true circumcision takes place in baptism, the Fathers viewed the number eight as containing a Christological mystery]. But a woman flowing with blood enters by stealth, and is healed in the eighth place. Thus the ruler’s daughter, who was excluded from this number, comes to the ninth. This accords with what is said in the Psalms: ‘Ethiopia will hasten [to stretch forth] her hand to God’; and ‘when the fullness of the Gentiles enters in, then all Israel will be saved.’” (Commentary on Matthew, The Fathers of the Church, Quantity 117, p. 110)
Alan F. Johnson
-“Paul’s entire usage of the word Israel in this section of the book (chapters 9-11), especially in chapter 11, and even the preceding verse, make it virtually certain that he is denoting the ethnic Israel or Jewish people, which could not include Gentiles. This more limited use becomes clear by also noting the subject of the following phrase: ‘their fulfillment’ (v. 12); ‘they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in’ (v. 23); ‘their disobedience… these also now have been disobedient… they also may now be shown mercy’ (vv. 30-31); and, ‘all in disobedience, that He might show mercy to all’ (v. 32). ‘All’ Israel, then, must refer to the forgiveness of the whole Jewish people or nation, the whole ethnic group in contrast to the saved remnant of Jews in Paul’s day and ours… The ‘partial’ hardness will be removed.” (Everyman’s Bible Commentary, Romans, p.75)
-“So all Israel shall be saved. After the fulness of the Gentiles has come in, the Jews, as a people, shall be saved. That is, of the Jews then living, the great part shall be converted. The nation shall turn to the Lord.” (The Individuals’s New Testament)
Galen Okay. Johnson
-“The consensus that modern scholars have in fact achieved over some aspects of the Israelfrage—“all Israel” refers to historic Israel, not the church.” (Quodlibet Journal: Quantity 6 Number one, January – March 2004)
Edwin A. Decide
-“Nevertheless Israel may hope for restoration.” (Romans, The New Bible Dictionary, p. 1101)
Walter C. Kaiser
-“However, God has not forgotten his ancient promise to Israel about the land and about the gospel. Paul’s prayer was that Israel still might come to repentance and faith (10:1). In the meantime, ‘a hardening in part’ (11:25) has come over Israel, but when the ‘full number of the Gentiles’ (11:12, 25) has been reached, Israel will be saved (11:26) and grafted back as separate branches into the olive tree from which they had been taken.” (The Promise-Plan of God, p. 283)
-“According to the plan and by the permission of God, ‘Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in’ (Rom. 11:25). But when the task of evangelizing the pagan, non-Jewish world has been completed and the ‘full number’ of Gentiles have come to believe in Christ, then the time will come for the Jews to experience their ‘fullness’ in God’s gracious offer of salvation (Rom. 11:12). The same timetable can be seen in Jesus’ prediction that ‘Jerusalem will be trodden down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled’ (Luke 21:24). Unfortunately, this timetable is not a matter of evangelical consensus. Some object in the strongest possible terms to interpreting the first clause in Romans 11:26 in a temporal sense—‘And then all Israel will be saved.’ They prefer to interpret it, ‘And thus [so, in this manner] all Israel will be saved.’ Verses 25-26a would then read, ‘Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in, and in this way all Israel will be saved.’ The most important point that needs to be raised here is that Romans 11:26b-27 consists of quotations from Isaiah 59:20-21 and Jeremiah 31:33-34. In their Old Testament setting, these verses applied to God’s new covenant and to his restoration of Israel. Moreover, in Romans 11:28 (‘As far as the gospel is concerned, they are enemies on your account; but as far as election is concerned, they are loved on account of the patriarchs’) Israel’s future and the extension of salvation to the church are tied in with the ancient promise-plan of God offered first to the patriarchs. Even though the first clause of Romans 11:26 (‘And so all Israel will be saved’) may not be directly temporal, it is sequential and consequential in thought in that the promises made in the Abrahamic—Davidic—new covenant are tied to the coming in of the full number of Israel and Gentiles.” (Again Toward the Future, p. 113-14)
Joe W. Kelley
-“A second major question from verse 26 that must be answered, which we have just partially attempted, is what does “all Israel” imply? As already noted, one view says it means the elect believing remnant of the Jews throughout the inter-advent age. That view was discovered wanting. One other common view is that Israel on this context refers back to the Christian church which is composed of each believing Jews and Gentiles. Such is the interpretation of John Calvin. He wrote: “I extend the word Israel to include all the people of God…When the Gentiles have come in, the Jews will at the same time return from their defection to the obedience of faith. The salvation of the whole Israel of God, which must be drawn from both, will thus be completed…In the same way, in Gal. 6:16, he calls the Church, which was composed equally of Jews and Gentiles, the Israel of God, setting the people, thus collected from the dispersion, in opposition to the carnal children of Abraham who had fallen away from faith.” On this writers’ opinion, Calvin’s view just isn’t easily dismissed for several causes: first, in 9:25-26 the guarantees of Hosea 2:23 and 1:10 made to ethnic Israel, calling the nation “my people,” is utilized to the Gentiles—therefore, the Christian Church. It’s clear that Paul sees the Gentiles being grafted into the individuals of God (11:17-21) in order that the Church can inherit the guarantees and even the terminology that within the OT belong only to Israel. Second, although contested by some notable scholars, the expression “Israel of God” in Gal 6:16 more than probably is a reference to the Christian Church. Third, the analogy of religion, whereby the which means of a passage that is unclear in a single text is learn within the mild of the which means present in a parallel clear text is a professional technique of interpretation. Nevertheless, though these arguments are true in themselves, within the opinion of this author, they can’t be sustained in Romans 11:26 for the following causes: first, in regards to the analogy of faith, Romans 11:26 need not be learn within the mild of Galatians 6:16 (any greater than Galatians 6:16 needs to be learn within the mild of Romans) for the context makes it clear who “all Israel” is. There is a sustained distinction between Israel and the believing Gentiles all through chapter 11 (11:11, 12, 13, 17, 24, 25, 28, 30-31). The term is obvious in Romans 11—Israel all the time refers to ethnic Jews, by no means Jews plus the Gentiles. Second, how might Israel be the ethnic nation in 11:25 (which is what this position says), and all of a sudden, with no forewarning, mean one thing completely totally different—the Church—within the very next verse? Third, the guide of Galatians and the guide of Romans have totally different purposes. Galatians, the primary ebook Paul wrote, was written in the heat of the Judaizer battle when the Church was being torn apart over admitting Gentiles into the group with out the requirements of circumcision and the obligations of holding the Mosaic Regulation (Acts 15). In Galatians, Paul is arguing for the complete acceptance of the Gentiles into the household of Abraham aside from any works of the Regulation. His software to the Church of the OT terms, “seed of Abraham” (Gal Three:29) and its synonym, “Israel of God” (Gal 6:16) is clearly applicable in the mild of the aim of Galatians. Nevertheless, Romans was written with a very totally different function in thoughts—specifically, to resolve the Jew/Gentile conflict so as to unify the Christian Church for the mission of the Gospel. In Romans, Paul is warning Gentile Christians towards their proclivity for vanity and prejudice towards the Jewish individuals (11:18). He warns towards their tendency to look upon themselves as the alternative for the Jewish individuals within the plan of God (11:19). He even rebukes their misguided efforts in trying to drive the believing Jews within the church at Rome to surrender those practices which Jewish believers really feel obligation sure by the Regulation to comply with (14:4-7, 10, 13, 20-23). Thus in Romans, it will be opposite to the background and function of the guide to use the term Israel to the Church. On this Epistle of Paul, Israel all the time means ethnic Israel.” (‘And So All Israel Will Be Saved’—Romans 11:26, p. 13-14; word: see also his wonderful discussion of “and so” in the same article)
Max R. King
-“There has been much discussion concerning the which means of “all Israel” on this verse. However the context exhibits that Paul makes use of ‘Israel’ here the identical approach he uses it throughout chapters 9-11, as a reference to Jacob’s physical lineage. Changing here to a ‘spiritual’ usage to include Gentile believers (as some hold) would counter the point Paul makes. Paul was not replacing Israel with the church. He was not trying to show the supposed ‘spiritual identities’ of Jew and Gentile in 11:26. As an alternative, he was establishing for his Gentile audience that God had not forged away Israel and that “all Israel” can be saved.” (And So All Israel Will Be Saved)
-“The Israel of “All Believers” will only be absolutely realized when the fullness of each Jewish and Gentile believers comes and ethnic Israel is restored to faith. To ensure that God to be glorified the Messiah have to be exalted. To ensure that Messiah to be exalted, His Physique, All Believers, the Church, is being blessed and is prospering. To ensure that the church to completely prosper, the Jewish individuals have to be restored to religion and be a part of in the missionary enterprise (Romans 11:12). In order for them to be restored, they need to, in fact, be preserved. I might argue that in order for the Jewish individuals to be preserved, the Nation of Israel needed to be created and needs to exist. We must stand for the continued existence of the state of Israel and for a just expression of that existence. The destiny of ethnic Israel and Religious Israel, the Church, are sure up collectively. The church is to make Jewish evangelism a priority and must stand by the Jewish individuals for the glory of God. We must look with hope and expectation for the fantastic day when the pure branches are grafted in and “all Israel will be saved.” In that day the Root of Jesse will stand as a banner for the peoples; the nations will rally to him, and the place of his rest shall be superb (Isaiah 11:10).” (Towards a Reformed Israelology)
-“The apostle had already discussed the question of a distinction within the Jewish nation, of an election who had attained justification, and of the mass who were blinded to its true character and means of attainment. From verse 11 he directs the attention of the Gentiles to the objects of the consequent rejection of this mass, and to the ultimate glory of the nation, at large, when they shall have been disciplined and prepared for it, and when the veil shall have been removed from their eyes. In the present verse, he adduces another argument to maintain a proper humility in the Gentile converts, and to give them a correct estimate of the relative position in which they, and the Jewish nation at large, stood in the designs of God. This he introduces as a mystery, or a thing not hitherto made known, and all the internal and mutual arrangements, influences, manner of operation and ultimate success of which are still unknown; but this much of it the apostle unfolds, to restrain the tendency to an overweening estimate of their own position, to which total ignorance upon the subject would expose the Gentiles, namely, that this blindness which rested upon the mass of the Jewish nation, was not total, but partial, not perpetual, but temporary, and permitted to a certain extent, and for a certain time, in order to promote God’s designs of mercy to the Gentiles. When a certain state of things had by this means been brought round, then this veil or partial blindness should be removed. That it is of the body of the nation that the apostle is speaking, and of their state, seems evident from the preceding and succeeding context. The Gentiles were in danger of an overweening estimate of themselves, from the supposition, that the blindess spoken of attached to the whole Jewish nation; for the apostle had all along spoken of it in terms which precluded such an imagination. The quarter from which he evidently apprehended peril to their humility and faith, was a comparison of their own state with that of the Jews at large, i.e. that is to say, the Gentiles, were, as a body, to supply in future the place of the Jewish nation, and that the blindness of the latter was total and perpetual. This danger he guards against by discovering to them, what otherwise he might not have revealed, that this blindness was but partial and temporary, and that the body of the nation, πάς ό Ισραήλ, should yet be restored to their original relation to God. And thus, that is, in connexion with the completion of the fulness of the Gentiles, all Israel, the body or mass of the nation, shall be saved, or the whole nation shall professedly embrace the gospel salvation.” (A Important Commentary on the Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Romans, p. 516-517)
Andreas Kostenberger & Peter T. O’Brien
-“For some, the expression ‘all Israel’ signifies the community of the elect, Jews and Gentiles who have believed in Jesus the Messiah. But this does not fit with Paul’s use of the term ‘Israel’ throughout the rest of chapter 11. Accordingly, most exegetes think that the expression signifies the nation of Israel as a whole, though not referring to every Jew without exception.” (Salvation to the Ends of the Earth: A Biblical Theology of Mission, p. 189; observe: the authors sadly go on to restrict the which means to the elect of Jews inside ethnic Israel, lacking Paul’s distinction between the remnant and the entire nation.)
-“Here it is not stated simply that individual, special favored members of the Old Testament Israel will again live from the root of election and in the holy tree; the promise is that when God’s invitation to join the new people of God has gone out to all nations, then ‘Israel as a whole’ will once again be grafted into the holy olive tree. ‘For the gifts and calling of God are irrevocable’ (Rom. 11:29). God will bring the work which he began in Abraham to a wonderful conclusion, and by this act he will reveal himself as the sovereign Lord of all the life of man in history.” (The Individuals of God within the Previous Testament, p. 91)
-“There is here no basis for the millennial dream of the final conversion of all Jews, but the apostle speaks of Israel in the same sense that he has employed almost exclusively in the entire letter. Paul had stated that the total hardening would not take place in the case of all the members of the Jewish race, but that there is a possibility of the conversion of some of them throughout the entire New Testament era. But in connection herewith the apostle intends to impart to his brethren, the members of the congregation at Rome, which was composed largely of Gentile Christians, a secret: I do not want you to remain in ignorance of this mystery, this secret, in order that you be not wise within yourselves. The secret of which Paul speaks is this: That obduration, blindness, in part has happened to Israel, until the full number of the heathen be come in, and thus all Israel will be saved. In order that the Roman Christians might not form their own opinion in regard to the matter, might not follow the drift of their own thoughts, he feels that it is best to tell them this at once. The blinding or hardening that he had been speaking of did not affect every member of the nation, but affected them only in part, namely, in so far as some of them had been finally rejected; but of the rest it was true that some of them were continually and gradually being converted and saved. While the fullness of the heathen is being gathered for Christ, while the number of those out of the Gentiles that will finally make up the body of those that are destined for salvation is being called through the Gospel, souls will also be gained from the midst of the Jews. Until the day of the revelation of Jesus Christ in His glory, therefore, there will always be some from the midst of the self-hardened Israelites that will come to the knowledge of the Savior. And thus the final result will be that all Israel will be saved, all those that are in deed and truth the children of Abraham, not according to the flesh only, but according to the spirit. These are the ones, from every nation under the sun, whom the Lord has chosen as His own and whom His saving call will reach sooner or later.” (The In style Commentary; notice how Kretzmann ignores the instant context and as an alternative appeals to the context of the letter at giant. By doing so the verse loses all “mystery” and develop into “stunningly anticlimactic” [T. Schreiner]; see Barry Horner above.)
Colin G. Kruse
-“Integral to the mystery Paul wants the Gentiles in his audience to understand is that ‘Israel has experienced a hardening in part’. The expression translated here as ‘in part’ is used later by Paul to mean both ‘in part’ (15:15: ‘I have written you quite boldly not some points [lit. ‘in part’]’) and ‘for a while’ (15:24: ‘I plan to do so when I go to Spain… after I have enjoyed your company for a while’; cf. 2 Cor. 1:14). It may be better to translate it here in 11:25 as ‘for a while’, that is, Paul is saying that Israel’s hardening is temporary rather than partial. This would be consistent with the fact that Paul says straightaway that this hardening will persist ‘until the full number of the Gentiles has come in’.” (Paul’s Letter to the Romans, Pillar Commentary, p. 442)
-“Bell, The Irrevocable Call of God, 259-60, notes four different ways in which kai houtos has been interpreted, concluding that only two deserve serious consideration: (i) kai houtos has been understood as modal, referring to that which precedes, i.e., referring back to the first two lines of the mysterion in 11:25b. Thus kai houtos is translated as ‘and in this way’ or ‘and in such a way’; (ii) it is possible that kai houtos could be understood ‘in a logical sense following on from achri hou to pleroma ton ethnon eiselthe. Although kai houtos is here understood as logical, it will also inevitably carry a temporal sense. This use of kai houtos is attested in the ‘intertestamental literature’. It is generally agreed that houtos never means ‘at that time’ or ‘then’, and so to construe 11:25-26 as to mean that once the full number of the Gentiles has come in, then God will act so that all Israel will be saved is not tenable. However, Peter W. van der Horst, ‘Only Then Will All Israel Be Saved: A Short Note on the Meaning of kai houtos in Romans 11:26’, JBL 119 (2000) 521-25, has shown there are instances where kai houtos is used with a temporal sense by classical writers (e.g., Theophrastus, Characters 18), postclassical writers (e.g., Epictetus 2.15.8), in Judeo-Greek literature (e.g., Life of Jeremiah 6), elsewhere in the NT (e.g., Acts 7:8; 1 Thess 4:16-17), and in early Christian literature (e.g., Irenaeus, Haer. 1.30.14). He states that the purpose of his essay is not ‘to exclude the possibility that Paul used kai houtos in the modal sense in Romans 11:26. What I do want to exclude, however, is the use of the false argument that it is impossible to take houtos in the temporal sense because this is ‘not found otherwise in Greek’ (Fitzmeyer)’ (524-25).” (ibid., p. 443, footnote 222)
George E. Ladd
-“Another event Paul expects to occur in connection with the consummation is the salvation of Israel. This truth Paul expounds in Romans 9-11. The rejection of Christ by Israel and its subsequent fall was not a mere accident of history but a factor in God’s redemptive purpose—an event in Heilsgeschichte. Even in the rejection of Israel, God has a purpose: that by Israel’s fall, salvation might come to the Gentiles (Rom. 11:11). Then Paul makes a key statement: “Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles, how much more their fullness?” (11:12)
In this assertion is embodied Paul’s theology of the longer term salvation of Israel. If the autumn of Israel has introduced salvation to the Gentiles, in how much bigger measure will salvation come to the Gentile world if the “fullness,” i.e. the complete salvation of Israel, comes? Israel was God’s chosen instrument to convey salvation to the world. This was the guts of the promise given to Abraham. He was to be the daddy of many nations, and in him would all the households of the earth be blessed (Gen. 12:1-3; 17:6). That is why Christ came into the world as an Israelite. Israel’s rejection of her Messiah and her subsequent fall have been the means utilized by God to convey salvation to the Gentiles. However this isn’t the last chapter of the story. The church age as we know it isn’t the top. Two issues should yet occur: the fullness of literal Israel must are available, and by her salvation larger riches be delivered to the Gentile world.
Paul further develops this fact within the following verses. Israel continues to be the chosen individuals. She continues to be the special object of God’s care and will but be the instrument of salvation. This is asserted in Romans 11:15-16. The firstfruits of Israel (the patriarchs) have been holy, i.e. the objects of God’s election and care; and all the lump (Israel as a individuals) can also be holy. If the basis of the tree is holy, so is all the tree. The individuals of Israel continues to be a “holy” individuals—a individuals who God has designated for his redemptive objective on the earth. This future function is indicated within the following words: “For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?” (v. 15)
Here’s a two-fold contrast: the current rejection of Israel due to unbelief is contrasted with a future receiving of Israel in belief. The other contrast is even more vital. The current rejection of unbelieving Israel signifies that the message of reconciliation has gone out to all the world; Israel’s future restoration will mean rather more than this—a state of blessedness that Paul describes by the phrase “life from the dead.” The balanced construction of the sentence exhibits that this can be a blessing that comes upon the Gentile world. The stability of the sentence is the key to its interpretation… Israel’s future salvation will problem in a brand new order of blessedness and happiness for the Gentile world that’s likened to the emergence of life from the lifeless. There remains sooner or later for the world an enjoyment of the truth of the life in Christ extending beyond something we’ve got now skilled; and this can be completed via the instrumentality of Israel’s conversion…
Paul sums up the whole matter in verses 25-27. Israel is now hardened. The Gentiles at the moment are being introduced in. Finally, “all Israel shall be saved.” “All Israel” doesn’t have to mean every single Israelite but the individuals as an entire…
It’s inconceivable that Israel must be saved in any approach however by faith in Jesus as Israel’s Messiah. Saul of Tarsus was delivered to religion by a particular vision of the glorified Christ; but he was saved by religion like several believer and was brought into the church. Literal Israel, briefly rejected, is but to return to religion and be grafted back into the olive tree—the true individuals of God (Rom. 11:23). Otto Piper has recommended that in God’s plan of redemptive historical past, transformed Israel might turn into for the primary time in history a very Christian nation.” (A Theology of the New Testament, p. 607-608)
“Many interpreters understand this passage spiritually and apply the words ‘all Israel’ to the gentile church. This view makes Paul merely assert that God’s entire people will be saved—that spiritual Israel will be complete. This interpretation does not suit the context. There is a movement throughout Romans 9-11 from literal Israel to the gentile church, and in its context, ‘all Israel’ must refer to an entire generation of living Jews. God has not finally cast off his people; when the full number of the gentiles have been saved, God will turn again to Israel, and they too will experience a nationwide salvation.” (A Commentary on the Revelation of John, p. 113)
-“[Commenting on Romans 11:26:] It is difficult to escape the conclusion that this means literal Israel.” (The Which means of the Millennium, edited by Robert G. Clouse, p. 27)
-“As the reprobation of the Jews was the occasion of the reconciliation of the world, their conversion will be as it were, the signal for the consummation of the world and the advent of a new one.” (Epitre aux Romains, p. 278)
Moses E. Lard
-“Here the future salvation of the great body of the Jews, who shall then be alive, is distinctly asserted. This is the clearest Scripture we have yet had on this point; and it is quite clear. Israel is yet to be born of water and of the Spirit, and so to enter the kingdom of God. Their unbelief and hardness are to die out. Their heart of flesh is to return, the vail is to drop from their eyes; and they are yet to see in him whom they pierced, their true and only Messiah.” (Commentary on Paul’s Letter to Romans, p. 370)
-“But undoubtedly, that people of the Jews shall once more be commanded to arise and shine, and their return shall be the riches of the Gentiles; and that shall be a more glorious time than ever the Church of God did yet behold… They forget a main point of the Church’s glory, who pray not daily for the conversion of the Jews.” (The Entire Works of the Most Reverend Father in God, Robert Leighton, D.D., Vol. 3, p. 125-6)
-“But Paul is certain both that God’s promise of salvation for Israel remains unchanged, and that hence Israel’s election remains in force and unchanged, although the majority of the people of God does not recognise God’s acts in Christ. Paul sees this as “unbelief” (11:23); however he additionally speaks of how God can and can “engraft” the “cut off” branches once more on the finish of time (11:24).” (Church and Israel, A Contribution from the Reformation Churches in Europe to the Relationship between Christians and Jews)
Gordon R. Lewis & Bruce Demarest
-“As used by the rabbis of Paul’s day, the phrase ‘all Israel’ meant Israel as a whole, without comprehending every individual within the group. Thus Paul envisaged God’s elective purpose issuing in the future salvation of a multitude of Jews who will trust Christ as Messiah and Savior.” (Integrative Theology)
Henry P. Liddon
-“The context requires the literal Israel.” (Explanatory Evaluation)
-“The contrast of the words “partial Israel,” “all Israel” and “the Gentiles” in verses 25-26 rule out the likelihood that Paul is referencing the ethnically numerous Jew-Gentile Church. He’s deliberately making the contrasts… Paul draws a distinction between Israel “of the ﬂesh” and Israel “of the promise” in Romans 9:6-8. This distinction is used to distinguish between nationwide ethnic Israel of their state of unbelief and the “remnant according to the election of grace” (11:6) who with transformed Gentiles comprise “the Church.” This distinction is important to understanding Romans 11. Repeatedly in Romans 11 Paul refers not to “Israel of the promise” but to “Israel of the ﬂesh” who’ve “stumbled” and “transgressed” and been “cast away” and “hardened” in “disobedience” and “unbelief.” This rebellious “Israel” is the “Israel” Paul speaks about in Romans 11:26 that might be “saved.” Paul’s citation of Isaiah and Jeremiah in verse 27 which includes the reference to “Zion” (Jerusalem) and “Jacob,” together with statements “enemies of the Gospel” and “beloved for the sake of the forefathers” in verse 28 are clearly about ethnic Jews who’ve rejected the Gospel. The concept Paul would converse of the Church in verse 26 after which ethnic Jews in verse 28 bears no legitimacy.” (The Which means of “All Israel Will Be Saved” in Romans 11:25-27, p. 1-2)
-“What does Paul say here (Romans 9-11) about the future salvation of unbelieving Israel? This is probably the clearest passage in the New Testament dealing with Jewry and eschatology. The critical verses are Romans 11:25-26… There follow immediately two Old Testament quotations which Paul uses to clinch the argument in his last statement… Note carefully the expression ‘the fullness of the Gentiles’ and the meaning of the word Israel here… It is clear that there is no reason to say, as some do, that Israel here means the Church. That would mean that Paul had made a semantic switch unnatural to the whole passage… ‘All Israel will be saved,’ that is, Jews will turn en masse to Christ at that time.” (Final Issues, p. 50, 51, 53)
-“I am equally impressed by Romans 11 which speaks of a great spiritual return among the Jews before the end time.” (Carl F.H. Henry, “Martyn Lloyd-Jones: From Buckingham to Westminster,” Christianity At this time, Feb. 8, 1980)
-“There are some, and I am among them, who believe that Paul does teach in this chapter that before the end there will be large numbers of conversions among the Jews. It will be astonishing and it will rejoice the hearts of believers then alive. It will be like life from the dead.” (The Church and the Last Things, Vol. Three, p. 113)
Christoph Ernst Luthardt
-“A survey of the entire line of argument shows incontrovertibly that here the discourse is concerning Israel only in the national and proper, and not in the figurative sense; for, throughout, the contrast between Israel and the Gentile world is maintained.” (Die Lehre von dem letzten Dingen, p. 113)
-“From this passage it is generally concluded that the Jews at the end of the world will be converted to faith in Christ. However, it is true that this passage is so obscure that hardly anyone will be persuaded with absolute clarity, unless he follows the verdict of the Fathers who interpret the Apostle in this sense. The meaning, then, is: The Jews who are now fallen, will be converted and saved, after the heathen according to fullness of the elect are come in. They will not remain outside forever, but in their own time they will be converted… To understand the Apostle rightly, we must bear in mind that his statement extends to the whole lump of the Jewish people.” (Commentary on Romans, p. 161-162; observe: Luther later changed his view when he wrote “Against the Jews and Their Lies”. See comment by Robert Verrell Foster above and Hermann Olshausen under.)
-“It is a holy secret why the Jews fell, a secret which no man knows, namely, that the Jews who are now fallen shall return and be saved.” (Luther’s Works, 25.429. Cf. 429-430)
-“All Israel must be taken to mean just that—the entire nation that survives God’s judgment during the Great Tribulation. The common amillennial view that all Israel refers only to a remnant redeemed during the church age does injustice to the text. Paul’s declaration about all Israel is set in clear contrast to what he has already said about the believing Jewish remnant which the Lord has always preserved for Himself. The fact, for instance, that only some of the branches (unbelieving Jews) were broken off (v. 17), plainly indicates that a remnant of believing Jews—those not broken off—will continually exist while the fulness of the Gentiles is being completed. These are Jews being redeemed who are not part of the spiritual hardening that has come upon Israel because of her rejection of her Messiah (v. 25).” (Romans, p. 127)
-“So, what [Paul, in Romans 9] is saying is, Israel was set aside, yes, temporarily and partially. And in their setting aside, the riches was turned to the Gentiles. After the Gentiles fullness has come in, after the church is complete (that’s what that means) God will go back and redeem Israel. Zechariah tells us exactly how. He says, “They will look on Him whom they have pierced and they will mourn for Him as an only son.” That is an indication that their salvation comes about immediately as a relationship of their concentrate on Jesus Christ. At that time, they are going to be saved. And, then He will fulfill His covenant, verse 27, He’ll take away their sins. As in regards to the gospel, now, they have grow to be enemies on your sake. In other phrases, their setting aside affected the salvation of the Gentiles. But, as touching the election, in other phrases, in God’s everlasting objective, they’re the beloved for the Father’s sake, for God can’t change His covenant. His presents and callings are without repentance, and so, He’ll deliver them back. There isn’t a query that He will deliver them back. However, the bringing again needs to be around the fact of the Lord, Jesus Christ.” (Bible Questions and Solutions, Part 19)
The rationale of this doom: ‘Because they received not the love of the truth that they might be saved.’ By the reality is meant the gospel, the chief fact revealed in God’s word, and the only means of salvation: Eph. i. 13, ‘In whom also ye trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation.’ That is the reality most profitable to misplaced sinners; receiving is put for entertaining, or believing the word; as Acts viii. 14, ‘When they heard that Samaria had received the word of God;’ and Acts xi. 1, ‘That the Gentiles had received the word,’ and elsewhere. This reception have to be with love: Acts ii. 41, ‘As many as received the word gladly;’ and Acts xvii. 11, ‘They received the word with readiness of mind.’ And this affection should produce its effect, in order to transform them unto God. Now, this is denied of them who’re seduced by Antichrist, that they ever had any true like to the truth, or minded it with a view to their salvation. Now, the business is, whether or not the clause involved solely the Jews, or might be applied to Christians? The Jews clearly acquired not the love of the truth, but did refuse Christ and his salvation. And herein the papists glory of a bonus of turning off this prophecy from themselves. But the apostle speaketh not of rejecting the reality, however of not receiving the love of the truth, which is not proper to the Jews however to false Christians. The Jews’ company rejected Christ, and Antichrist was not sent to them for a punishment, however wrath came across them to the uttermost, to the excision and slicing off their nation. (Sermons on II Thessalonians)
-“And what the people of the Jews shall say and do, when they see Him coming in glory, has been thus predicted by Zechariah the prophet: ‘I will command the four winds to father the scattered children; I will command the north wind to bring them, and the south wind, that it keep not back. And then in Jerusalem there shall be great lamentation, not the lamentation of mouths or of lips, but the lamentation of the heart; and they shall rend not their garments, but their hearts. Tribe by tribe they shall mourn, and then they shall look on Him whom they have pierced; and they shall say, Why, O Lord, hast Thou made us to err from Thy way? The glory which our fathers blessed, has for us been turned into shame.’” (First Apology, ch. 52)
-“The sum of this chapter’s teaching can be briefly reviewed in the following way: the Jews have not so perished without exception that no hope remains for their salvation. To this day remnants are preserved who are saved, now to be sure a small number (even so they are the salt of the earth), but one day they will become a mighty band in full view.” (In Epistolam S. Pauli Apostoli ad Romanos, 3d ed. [Basil, 1586]p. 488)
Frank J. Matera
-“Thus far, Paul’s argument has proceeded in this way. In 9:1-29 he defended the constancy and integrity of God’s word by showing that God has always worked on Israel’s behalf through a process of divine election/selection. Then in 9:30-10:21 he turned his attention to Israel to show that it is not God’s word that has failed but Israel that has failed to be obedient to that word. Now in 11:1-36 Paul comes to the crucial step in his argument that the word of God has not failed (9:6). Focusing his attention on God once more, he affirms that God has not rejected his people (11:1), that Israel has not stumbled so as to fall (11:11), and that all Israel will be saved (11:26), for the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable (11:29).” (Romans, p. 256; notice: this is a wonderful summary of Romans 9-11.)
-“Although the meaning of ‘all Israel’ has been contested (see Cranfield 1979, 576-77; and Reasoner 2005, 121-28 for a fuller discussion), the argument of this chapter indicates that Paul is speaking of ethnic Israel, which includes not only the remnant that has believed but also the vast majority that has not. Historical Israel (past, present, and future) will be the beneficiary of God’s salvation.” (ibid., p. 273)
-“All Israel shall be saved… I know not any Scripture containing a more pregnant and illustrious testimony and demonstration of the Israelites’ future vocation, it being a main scope of the Apostle in this chapter to make known this Mystery unto the Gentiles.” (The Mystery of Israel’s Salvation Defined and Applied)
-“What is supposed by all Israel? Answ. There are divers interpretations which have been given thereof.
- Some assume, that by all Israel is meant some Few of all Israel. However that can’t be the which means of the words, for the observe of universality, All Israel, won’t bear such a specific restrained interpretation… Apart from, the Apostle opposeth that salvation of all Israel, which he predicts as future in the words of my Text, unto the salvation of a remnant, which at that present time when he wrote this Epistle to the Romans was completed, v. 5.
- Others assume, that by all Israel, is supposed all the elect of God. But though it’s a fact, that each one the elect of God shall be saved, no link of that golden chain of salvation which beginneth in election, and endeth in everlasting glory, can ever be broken, Rom. Eight.29, 30; And although it’s likewise true, that Israel is usually utilized in Scripture for the elect of God, Gal. 6.16… but that isn’t the true which means of all Israel in my Textual content, for the Apostle on this Chapter discourseth of pure Israel. There’s carnal or pure Israel, i.e. those which might be by era of the seed of Jacob, who was afterwards referred to as Israel. Therefore we learn of Israel after the flesh, in addition to Israel after the spirit, 1 Cor. 10.18. Rom. 9.4, 5. Gal. Four.23. Now of this Israel doth the Apostle right here converse, as you may even see, Rom. 11.14. Nor indeed had he declared such a mystery as he speaketh of, verse 25, if solely he had stated that the elect must be saved. Probably the Romans knew that before, whereas this salvation of Israel was a mystery that they little considered, and thence behaved themselves too arrogantly and contemptuously in the direction of the, at current, forlorn and rejected Israelites, which error of theirs our Apostle laboureth to right, by informing them, that there would a time come when Jews ought to be saved in addition to Gentiles.
- Others there are, that by all Israel understand, all and each one of the pure posterity of Jacob. As if the Apostle’s which means have been, that every specific individual amongst the youngsters of Israel should partake of this salvation; but in that there’s a mistake also. For when this salvation shall happen, which is right here spoken of, there can be divers specific persons amongst the Israelites that may stand it out towards the decision of God, for which they shall be destroyed, in line with that Textual content, Act. 3.23. We might suppose, that a number of the Jews will adhere obstinately to their previous antiquated Ceremonies, for which the Lord shall be dreadfully provoked to cut them off. So some interpret, Isa. 66.Three, Four. Think about also, Eze. 20.37, 38…
- Others assume, that by all Israel, is meant the body of the Israelitish Nation. And that seemeth to be the genuine interpretation of the phrases; for in different Scriptures, all is used to suggest many, Mat. Three.5. It is stated, That each one Judea was baptized by John, confessing their sins. Probably there have been some in Judea, that neither confessed their sins, nor have been baptized by John, subsequently all noteth a multitudinous number: And so is All to be taken, Isa. 66.23. Joel 2.28. 1 Cor. 15.22. and in many different Scriptures. So when it’s stated, All Israel shall be saved, i.e. very many Israelites shall be saved. Yea, all right here noteth, not solely many, but most; it signifieth not solely a Majority, but a very full and enormous Generality. Therefore the same factor known as their fulness, Rom. 11.12. Now as when the fulness of the Gentiles shall be brought in, that should not be prolonged to each specific individual, nor but to some only, but to the body of Gentile Nations, whom that prophecy doth concern; so might we say concerning this fulness of Israel. Moreover, resembling was Israel’s rejection, such should their re-assumption into divine favour be, Rom. 11.15. However their rejection was not of every specific individual, nor but of some solely, but of the physique of the Nation; so shall their salvation be National.” (ibid.)
-“That there shall be a general conversion of the tribes of Israel, is a truth which in some measure hath been known and believed in all ages of the church of God, since the Apostles’ days… only in these late days these things have obtained credit much more universally than heretofore.” (ibid.)
-“All this being understood, it yet remains that the passage in Romans 11:25 leaves room for, even if it does not imply, a time to come during this gospel era when the supernatural blindness, imposed as a punishment upon the Jews as a nation, will be removed, or at least abated, so that the gospel message will have a far greater effect among them than during the time the vail was upon their hearts, and that many of them may be saved. Paul’s heart’s desire and prayer to God for Israel was “that they might be saved”; and it is affordable to imagine that, in so praying, he was “praying in the Holy Ghost.” This lends help to the expectation that there’ll but be a mighty working of the Spirit and the word of God amongst the Jewish individuals, one thing analogous to “the latter rain” – by which, in fact, Gentiles too will take part.” (The Hope of Israel: What is It?
Robert Murray M’Cheyne
-“But you say God has cast them off. Hath God cast away His people which He foreknew? God forbid! The whole Bible contradicts such an idea. “Is Ephraim My dear son? Is he a pleasant child? For since I spake against him, I do earnestly remember him still. Therefore My bowels are troubled for him, I will surely have mercy upon him, saith the Lord.”—Jer. xxxi. 20. “I will plant them again in their own land assuredly, with My whole heart and with My whole soul.” “Zion saith, the Lord hath forsaken me, and my Lord hath forgotten me. Can a woman forget her sucking child, tha t she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, they may forget, yet will I not forget thee.”—Isa. xlix. 14. “And so all Israel shall be saved, as it is written, There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob.” Now the straightforward query for every of you is, and for our beloved Church, Ought to we not share with God His peculiar affection for Israel? If we are full of the Spirit of God, should we not love as He loves? Ought to we not grave Israel upon the palms of our palms, and resolve that via our mercy additionally they might acquire mercy?” (Our Obligation to Israel)
-“I have often thought that a reflective traveller, passing through the countries of this world, and observing the race of Israel in every land, might be led to guess, merely from the light of his natural reason, that a singular people are preserved for some great purpose in the world.” (ibid.)
-“Saved Israel will give life to the dead world… ‘And the remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of many people as a dew from the Lord, as the showers upon the grass, that tarrieth not for man, nor waiteth for the sons of men.’ (Micah 5:7) Just as we have found, among the parched hills of Judah, that the evening dew, coming silently down, gave life to every plant, making the grass to spring and the flowers to put forth their sweetest fragrance, so shall saved Israel be when they come as dew upon a dead, dry world.” (ibid.)F.B. Meyer
-“The Hebrew nation will be grafted in to serve the divine program in the last stages of human history. They are still beloved for their fathers’ sake, and the day is coming when all their sins will be forgiven and taken away.” (By means of the Bible Day by Day: A Devotional Commentary)
Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer
-“The modal character of the ούτω therefore lies in the sucession of time conditioning the emergence of the fact (compare 1 Cor. 11:28), as it also in the classics, in the sense of so then, embraces what has been previously said… This notion, so definitely expressed, of the totality of the people is in no way to be limited; the whole of those are intended, who, at the time that the fulness of the Gentiles shall have come in, will compose Israel. All Israelites who up to that time shall be still unconverted, will then be converted to salvation, so that at that term entire Israel will obtain the saving deliverance… Limitations from other interests than that of exegesis have been suggested: such as that the spiritual Israel, Gal. 6:16, is meant (Augustine, Theodoret, Luther, Calvin, Grotius, and others, including Krummacher); or only the select portion of the Jews (Calovius, Bengel, and several others, including Olshausen…; or that πάς is to be taken comparatively only of the greater number, of the bulk (Occumenius, Wetstein, Ruckert Fritzsche, Tholuck)… πάς Ισραήλ is in fact, not ‘Israel as a whole,’ but rather the entire Israel, as is also meant in 2 Chron. 12:1 and in all the O.T. passages, in contrast to ‘in part’, verse 25… Will be saved, unto Messianic salvation, by their conversion to Christ.” (Essential and Exegetical Hand-Ebook to the Epistle to the Romans, p. 448-449)
-“It is self-evident that thus all the elements which form the points properly so called of this interpretation [of Calvin and other Reformers] are forced upon the text, and the result is an historical process recognizable by any one, concerning which it is not easy to see how Paul could introduce it as a mystery.” (Crucial and Exegetical Hand-Ebook to the Epistle to the Romans, p. 449)
Jason C. Meyer-“‘All Israel’ should be understood as an ethnic reference. This inference makes better sense of the preceding verses and the subsequent verses in which Paul maintains a strict dichotomy in language between ‘you’ (Gentiles) and the Jews. Paul distinguishes the Gentiles and the Israelites as two ethnic groups in 11:11-25 in the olive-branch analogy that comes before v. 26. Paul also divides Jew and Gentile into two separate ethnic camps when he traces the pattern of redemptive history in the passage immediately following v. 26 (i.e., 11:28-32). God’s salvific activity began with Israel, went to the Gentiles, and then concludes with Israel once again. The ‘all’ in v. 32 makes better sense as the summing up of both Jew and Gentile, not ‘all people without exception,’ but ‘all people without ethnic distinction.’ Furthermore, nothing in 11:26 demands a shift in meaning of the word ‘Israel’ from its consistent reference to ethnic Israelites.” (The Finish of the Regulation, p. 193)
-“All Israel. National Israel. Compare the parallel from Jacob in the next quotation. All. Not necessarily every individual, but enough individuals to make the believers in Christ representative of the nation.” (Wycliffe Bible Commentary, p. 1218)
-“We utterly deny a prospective in-sweeping of the Israelites. And if anyone begs us for an immediate reason, we answer, Because Christ puts us on our immediate guard lest the Judgment surprise us at any moment. How can that be true, and all these other things? We believe there is no prophecy in the New Testament Scriptures. And if anyone is shocked at this, we beg him to begin back at the original idea. If any moment may usher the Redeemer in the clouds, and the dead, small and great, may be judged, what mockery to stuff the time with events. We believe there is no Millennium. We believe there is no personal reign. We believe there is no solidarity for the Jew, or geographic trifling about the rocks of Palestine. And we beg any one who testifies his disgust, simply to answer a question,–How can I be listening for the trumpet, or waiting for my Lord in ‘the air’, or supposing in my short life that the dead may be raised, when there are shoals of unfinished events, and the ‘seals’ and the ‘viols’ and millennial splendor of the church and the restoration of the tribes and terracing of Palestine, are all to be interpolated before my rising? If I had to be hanged, and it might be instantly, and the knock at my cell be at any moment, it would have a queer influence to know that a new jail had to be built, and no end of events happen before I or anyone else could ascend the scaffold… ‘Blindness in part.’ That is, the Jews, like everyone else, are some of them saved and some of them lost… ‘And so all Israel shall be saved.’ Jews are to be gathered ‘while’ Gentiles are being gathered; and so ‘all Israel,’ not in the ‘Restoration’ sense, but in the widest sense, Jews and Gentiles, are to be converted and gathered in. ‘The children of the flesh, those same are not the children of God’ (9:8). ‘They are not all Israel that are of Israel’ (9:6). ‘He is not a Jew who is one outwardly’ (2:28). And, therefore, Paul has given us abundant scope to look for such passages as this. ‘All Israel (will have been) saved’ when Jews have been going in ‘while’ Gentiles were going in, and all Jews ‘inwardly’ (2:29), whether Greeks or Israelites, shall have accepted each his place in the everlasting Kingdom.” (Commentary on Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, p. 319-321; discover the weak spot of Miller’s place; it is dogmatic, not exegetical.)
-“The way in which we interpret this verse will largely determine how we see Israel in relation to the future. The important words are: ‘all Israel will be saved.’ At first sight this phrase read within its immediate context, Romans 11:24-32, appears to assert not only the continuation of the nation of Israel within God’s purposes but in fact a future act of mercy on God’s part by which the entire nation will be restored to God… The difficulties of understanding ‘Israel’ in a sense other than ‘the nation as a whole’ however are real on a careful reading of the passage… In the light of Romans 11:26, however, it may be that we should hope for a significant future turning to the Lord Jesus Christ on the part of many Jewish people, with resulting blessing for the world-wide church.” (What the Bible Teaches Concerning the Finish of the World, p. 71, 76-77; observe: after itemizing 4 potential views and struggling significantly with them, Milne involves this conclusion cautiously)
Paul Sevier Minear
-“Did not Paul himself insist that the gospel and salvation must come fi rst to the Jew and only then to the Gentile? Did he not recognize the continued importance of biological descent when he spoke of unbelieving Jews as beloved ‘for the sake of their forefathers’ (Rom. 11:28)? Does not this awareness of biological fact lie behind his own sense of kinship with Israel and his own confidence that in the end ‘all Israel will be saved’ (v. 26)? To all these questions an affirmative answer must be given.” (Photographs of the Church in the New Testament, p. 83)
-“There can be no question of God’s having finally rejected the people of his choice-he would then have to reject his own election (11.29)… Israel’s promises remain Israel’s promises. They have not been transferred to the church. Nor does the church push Israel out of its place in the divine history. In the perspective of the gospel, Israel has by no means become ‘like all the nations.’” (The Approach of Jesus Christ: Christology in Messianic Dimensions, p. 35)
“In its hope for the nation the church also preserves the ‘surplus of promise’ in Israel’s prophets, and therefore waits for the fulfillment of Israel’s hopes too. In the very fact of turning wholly to the Gentile nations with the gospel, it confirms and strengthens Israel’s hope: all Israel will be saved when the fullness of the Gentiles arrives at salvation (Rom. 11:25f). The common focus of Jewish and Christian hopes is the coming of the Messiah to his messianic kingdom. Only the Christ of the parousia will save ‘all Israel’ (Rom. 11:26). The acceptance of all Israel will be ‘life from the dead’ (Rom. 11:15f).” (The Coming of God: Christian Eschatology, p. 198)
-“In both Galatians and Rom. 4 Paul is arguing that Gentiles, as Gentiles, can become recipients of the blessings promised to Abraham and full members of the people of God… But Paul’s purpose in Rom. 11 is almost the opposite. Here, he counters a tendency for Gentiles to appropriate for themselves exclusively the rights and titles of ‘God’s people.’ For Paul in this context to call the church ‘Israel’ would be to fuel the fire of the Gentiles’ arrogance by giving them grounds to brag that ‘we are the true Israel.’” (The Epistle to the Romans, NICNT, p. 721)
“The reference in both verses [Rom. 9:6 & Rom. 11:26] is to ethnic Israel.” (Galatians, BECNT, p. 402)
-“Paul has described Israel’s ‘hardening’ (porosis) earlier (11:7; cf. 9:18). Because the existence of a remnant has already implied, this hardening is simply ‘in part’ that’s, it impacts only a part of Israel. However not only is the hardening partial, it’s also short-term. It lasts, Paul implies, solely ‘until the full number of Gentiles has come in.’ The thing we must supply for ‘come in’ is clearly the ‘kingdom’ or some such idea (see Matt. 7:13; Luke 13:24; 23:13). ‘Full number’ (pleroma), as most commentators recognize, has a numerical reference… In different phrases, God has decided the variety of Gentiles to be saved. As soon as that quantity is reached, Israel’s hardening involves an finish (see Luke 21:23-24 for a partial parallel).
The primary clause of verse 26 is the storm middle in the interpretation of Romans 9-11 and of the New Testament educating about Israel generally…
(1) What does the transitional phrase kai houtos firstly of the verse mean? The NIV interprets ‘and so,’ suggesting the thought of consequence or conclusion. Others assume the word might hyperlink up with the Previous Testament citation at the finish of the verse: ‘It is in this way that all Israel will be saved, namely, just as it is written…’ Some interpreters and lots of casual readers of Romans take the phrase as temporal: ‘and then all Israel will be saved.’ However the normal nuance of houtos is to precise method, and this works nicely right here: ‘and in this manner all Israel will be saved.’ However, the temporal concept comes sneaking in the back door, for the way during which all Israel is saved includes a process that unfolds in temporal levels.
(2) What does Paul mean by ‘all Israel’? The warmth of the talk over this verse has resulted in many choices, however three stand out as worthy of consideration. (a) An interpretation common amongst most of the Reformers and revived by several scholars lately is to take ‘all Israel’ as referring to the complete church. As we now have argued, there’s precedent in Paul for using ‘Israel’ to seek advice from the church (Gal. 6:16), and the addition of ‘all’ might recommend that Paul is now speaking not of national Israel or a part of Israel however of ‘the whole’ of religious Israel. It’s via the removing of the hardening on Israel and the coming in of Gentiles that each one the elect of God, the complete Israel, might be saved.
This feature is engaging in some ways, however it founders on two points. First, Paul has used ‘Israel’ ten occasions in Romans 9-11 to date, every one referring to ethnic Israel. There isn’t a hint here of a shift to a spiritual category. Furthermore, Paul’s objective throughout this part is to stifle Gentile satisfaction. For him all of a sudden to include Gentiles in ‘Israel’ would gasoline their delight by encouraging them to imagine that they have ‘replaced’ Israel.
(b) Another risk is that ‘all Israel’ refers to ‘spiritual’ Israel, the elect of Jews from inside nationwide Israel. Some interpreters who perceive the phrase this manner argue that Paul is referring to the best way that each one the elect Jews will come to salvation over the course of salvation history. There’s precedent for this which means of ‘Israel’ in Romans 9-11, since 9:6 speaks of the ‘Israel within Israel.’ However this is not the best way Paul has used the word in the instant context, and it is something of a truism to say that the elect can be saved.
(c) Subsequently, in settlement with most commentators, we expect ‘all Israel’ refers back to the totality of national Israel. This does not mean that every single Jew will probably be saved. The phrase ‘all Israel’ occurs over 100 occasions within the Previous Testomony, with a variety of meanings. But typically it refers to some Israelites as representative entire. Notice, as an example, 2 Samuel 16:22: “In order that they pitched a tent for Absalom on the roof, and he lay together with his father’s concubines within the sight of all Israel.’ Furthermore, the phrase virtually all the time refers to Israelites dwelling at a sure time limit fairly than to Israelites in every era of the nation’s historical past.
(3) The third exegetical situation has already been determined by our conclusion about ‘all Israel’. If the reference is to a single era of Israel, Paul can hardly mean anything however the Israel because it exists in the long run occasions. This conclusion is borne out by 11:15, where, we argued, Paul connects Israel’s ‘acceptance’ by God to the resurrection of the lifeless. The Previous Testomony citation that follows within the current passage (11:26b-27) factors in the same path, for ‘the deliverer’ is nearly definitely Christ, and his coming refers to his second coming in glory. We conclude, then, that Paul right here predicts the salvation of a big number of Jews on the time of Christ’s return in glory. The current ‘remnant’ of Israel might be expanded to include a a lot larger variety of Jews who will enter the everlasting kingdom together with transformed Gentiles.” (Romans, The NIV Software Commentary)
-“But what seems decisive is the fact that ‘Israel’ in v. 25 plainly means the nation (it is physical Israel, not spiritual Israel, that is hardened in part), and it is not easy to understand why in the next line it should have a different meaning (Hodge has a strong argument for this position). A further strong argument is that Paul has just said that this is a ‘mystery’. Now it is no ‘mystery’ that all the elect, Jews as well as Gentiles, will be saved. Nor is the conversion of a few Jews in each generation such as has happened until now the kind of thing that needs to be the subject of a special revelation. That looks for a very different kind of happening. It may also be argued that Paul is looking for the restoration of the Jews in the sense in which they had been rejected, that is, the nation generally. Paul then is affirming that the nation of Israel as a whole will ultimately have its place in God’s salvation.” (The Epistle to the Romans, p. 421)
-“Up to now St. Paul has relatively reasoned than predicted. He has proven his Gentile buddies the naturalness, so to talk, of a restoration of Israel to Christ, and the manifest certainty that such a restoration will deliver blessing to the world. Now he advances to the direct assertion, made with a Prophet’s full authority, that so it shall be. ‘How much rather shall they be grafted into their own Olive?’ The query implies the assertion; nothing remains but to open it in full.
‘All Israel shall be saved.’ It has been held by some interpreters that this points to the Israel of God, the religious sons of Abraham. In that case, it will be pretty paraphrased as a promise that when the Gentile conversions are full, and the ‘spiritual failure of perception’ gone from the Jewish heart, the household of religion shall be complete. However certainly it places violence on the words, and on thought, to elucidate ‘Israel’ in this entire passage mystically. Interpretation becomes an arbitrary work if we might abruptly achieve this here, where the antithesis of Israel and ‘the Gentiles’ is the very theme of the message. No; we now have here the nation, chosen with a selection by no means cancelled, nevertheless abeyant. A blessing is in view for the nation; a blessing religious, divine, all of grace, fairly particular person in its motion on each member of the nation, but national in the scale of its outcomes… A transition, comparatively swift and fantastic, shall show the world a nation penitent, trustworthy, holy, given to God.” (Expositor’s Bible Commentary, The Epistle to the Romans, p. 311-312)
-“[These words] may refer (A) to the natural Israel, the Jews; or (B) to the ‘Israel of God,’ the true Church of Christ… Of these… possibilities we prefer on the whole (A) as the most in accord with the context, and with the analogy of Scripture. The explanation (B) is in itself entirely true: the final glory and triumph of the Gospel will surely be, not specifically the salvation of the Jews, but that of the Universal Church—the immortal Bride of the King Eternal. And it is extremely important to remember the full recognition in Scripture of all its true members as the ‘seed of Abraham’ (Gal. 3:29). But this is not the truth exactly in point here, where St Paul is dealing with the special prospect of a time when ‘blindness in part’ will no longer characterize Jews as Jews. And the ‘Israel’ of verse 25 is probably the Israel of verse 26, as no distinction is suggested in the interval.” (Cambridge Bible for Faculties and Schools, The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans, p. 199)
Robert H. Mounce
-“This is the crucial statement. ‘All Israel’ refers to the nation of Israel as a whole but not necessarily to every individual. Thus Paul is saying, God’s plan for the salvation of man involves three stages: (1) the believing remnant, (2) the Gentiles, (3) Israel as a whole. Most of the standard commentaries on Romans hold that Paul is here teaching the salvation of Israel as an eschatological event.” (Themes from Romans, p. 120)
-“If only individual Israelites are to be saved, then in spite of everything there would be a breach in God’s promise. Therefore in chapter 11 Paul describes the divine guidance of the peoples which finally must lead to the salvation of Israel as a people (11:26).” (Zuvorersehung, p. 12)
-“I now proceed to consider briefly some of the events which will take place then… 2. The conversion and restoration of Israel nationally. In Scripture the glory and resurrection of the Church of the firstborn ones is always connected with the time when Israel (who will have returned to their own land in unbelief) ‘shall know the Lord.’” (The Second Coming of Christ, p. 61, 63)
-“This similar belief concerning the future of the Jews is to be discovered very extensively in seventeenth-century Puritan literature. It appears within the works of such well-known Puritans as John Owen, Thomas Manton and John Flavel. … It’s also dealt with in a wealthy array of commentaries, both folios and quartos – David Dickson on the Psalms, George Hutcheson on the Minor Prophets, Jeremiah Burroughs on Hosea, William Greenhill on Ezekiel, Elnathan Parr on Romans and James Durham on Revelation: an inventory which might be drastically prolonged. (The Puritan Hope, 43)
-“‘And so’ with which verse 26 begins indicates that the proposition about to be stated is either one parallel to or one that flows from the revelation enunciated in the preceding verse. It means ‘and accordingly’, continuing the thought of what precedes or drawing out its implications. ‘All Israel shall be saved’ is the proposition thus involved. It should be apparent from both the proximate and less proximate contexts in this portion of the epistle that it is exegetically impossible to give to ‘Israel’ in this verse any other denotation than that which belongs to the term throughout this chapter. There is the sustained contrast between Israel and the Gentiles, as has been demonstrated in the exposition preceding. What other denotation could be given to Israel in the preceding verse? It is of ethnic Israel Paul is speaking and Israel could not possibly include Gentiles. In that event the preceding verse would be reduced to absurdity and since verse 26 is a parallel or correlative statement the denotation of ‘Israel’ must be same as in verse 25.” (The Epistle to the Romans, Vol. 2, p. 96; see all of John Murray’s extraordinarily insightful and essential comments and footnotes, pp. 96-98!)
-“We pose the question: In what sense here is “all Israel” used? Maybe merely as it is in the Septuagint? That isn’t the case. For right here there’s very clearly a pressure between the attributes “all (Israel)” and “part” (apomerous) from the previous verse: a “hardening” (towards the Christ and the gospel) for a particularly restricted time or on a specifically restricted portion has encounter Israel, the Jewish individuals, from God. It lasts “until the full number of the Gentiles (specified by God) come in.” The “remnant, chosen by grace” had at that time accepted the gospel – Paul was considering of the Jewish-Christians of his time–“but the rest were hardened (by God)” (11:5 – 8), however not for all eternity, but quite solely “until the full number of the Gentiles come in.”
Who, subsequently, is supposed by “all Israel” in Rom. 11:26? The attributive “all” before “Israel” both of itself and on the idea of the diachronic linguistic utilization does not right here allow a limitation of the time period “Israel” within the sense of Rom. 9:6, that is, a limitation to that Israel which has accepted the gospel, or certainly to the Church because the (alleged) true Israel. Quite, “all Israel” consists of the “remnant” who by the grace of God have accepted the gospel and the “rest” who have been hardened (by God)–cf. 11:5 – 7. A reference to everything of Israel also turns up in 10:16 when the apostle there formulates: “But they have not all [of Israel] heeded the gospel.” “Not all” means a portion of Israel, specifically, those that remained “hardened.” One should subsequently describe the method “all Israel” because the sum of an addition; on this sense Paul modified the handed-on formulation.
From the attitude of this insight the much-disputed “and thus” (kai houtos) originally of 11:26 may also be explained. It is typically incorrectly understood as an anticipation of the “how” (kathôs) in verse 26b, within the sense: All Israel will “thus,” that’s, in this method, be saved “as it is written” in Isa. 59:20f. “And thus–as” is understood as a parallel relationship. Nevertheless, had Paul such a parallel in mind, then he would have placed the “thus” in verse 26a in one other place in the sentence and would have begun it with out the particle “and” (kai): All Israel will thus, that is, on this method, be saved as it is written in Isaiah. Relatively, Paul proclaims: “The remnant” of Israel, that part which had accepted the gospel, God had already saved, as corresponds to the prophetic statement of Rom. 9:27 (Isa. 10:20: “The remnant will be saved”) But in addition the remaining whom God for incomprehensible reasons “hardened,” shall be saved by him, specifically, when the “full number of the Gentiles comes in.” “And thus” in the long run–the apostle states this prophetically–“all Israel might be saved. The emphasis lies on the attributive “all” (pas): All Israel might be saved, not simply a part of it, for example, that portion which has accepted the gospel. By the way, that the “hardened” part of Israel which was not capable of obey the gospel shall be saved by God is said by Paul with the help of the Isaiah quotation not for the primary time in ll:26b; he had introduced this earlier with all potential readability in verse 24: “For if you have been cut from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these natural branches be grafted back into their own olive tree.” This is an indicative assertion and prediction with out limitation: God will re-engraft them.” (‘All Israel Will Be Saved’ [Romans 11:26]Tractate on the Jews)
Navarre Bible Commentary
-“The conversion of the Jews is a secret—a mystery, the text says (v. 25)—hidden in the future… This conversion will follow that of the Gentiles, which will be as it were a prelude to it. Jesus has foretold that “Jerusalem will be trodden down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled”, which not directly suggests that the Jews will probably be converted on the finish of time.” (NBC, Romans 11:25)
-“And (to follow the subject one step further, in fact to its conclusion) so [thus]—ie. Under these circumstances, after the conversion of the Gentiles (and by means of it)—all Israel shall be saved—ie. Shall be restored, as a nation, to God’s favor, and enjoy the complete fulfillment of all their prophesied blessings.” (The Expositor’s Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, p. 369)
-“But Israel’s blindness is only for a time. God had not discarded his ancient people, and in the end the Jews too will be gathered into the Christian Church.” (Harper’s Bible Commentary, p. 453)
-“Some nonmillenarians consider God will do one thing particular for Israel on the end of time that may compel them to simply accept Jesus as their Messiah. They base this view on Romans 11, during which the Apostle Paul stated, ‘all Israel will be saved.’ (Coming Once more, p. 242)
-“And so all Israel shall be saved—This is the real, elect, spared nation of the future,—“those written unto life” (Dan. 12:1; Isa. 4:3, margin). The thriller comprehends this reality (as we have now stated above, and as the apostle amplifies in verse 31) for the salvation of national Israel was inconceivable, besides on purely grace strains. God had given them the Regulation: that was necessary to reveal sin. But they completely failed. Now comes within the fulness of the Gentiles—by grace: and so, after that, and on the same grace line as have been the Gentiles, all Israel shall be saved! Most of that earthly nation will perish underneath Divine judgments, and the Antichrist: however the Remnant shall be “accounted as a generation.”… See Psalm 22:30; 102:18. Jehovah eventually “arises, and has pity on her,—for the set time has come!” So we read the Psalmist’s words: ‘This shall be written for the generation to come; And a people which shall be created shall praise Jehovah.’” (Romans Verse-by-Verse)
-“We have what may be called a standing miracle continually before our eyes; I mean the state of the Jews, who, though dispersed far and wide among many nations, are every where preserved a distinct and separate people. The history of the world affords no other instance of the like kind. The great monarchies, by which they were successively conquered and scattered, have successively perished. Only the names of them remain. But the people whom they despised, and endeavored to exterminate, subsist to this day; and, though sifted like corn over the earth, and apparently forsaken of God, are still preserved by his wonderful providence, unaffected by the changes and customs around them; still tenacious of the law of Moses, though the observance of it is rendered impracticable. Many days, many ages they have lived as the prophets foretold they should, without a temple, without sacrifice or priest. (Hos. 3:4-5) As yet, many Heathen nations are permitted to walk in their own ways. But at length “the fulness of the Gentiles shall come in, and all Israel shall be saved.” (Rom. 11:25-26) The revolutions and commotions in kingdoms and nations, which astonish and perplex politicians, are all bringing ahead this great event.” (Works of John Newton, Quantity IV, Sermon XXXII)
-“The content of the secret is that hardening has come upon part of Israel for the present, and it will continue till the full number of the Gentiles come in. But when that has taken place, the turn will come to Israel as a people. Then it will no longer be a ‘remnant’ but Israel’s ‘fulness’, ‘all Israel,’ will enter into the kingdom of God. All Israel will be saved.” (Commentary on Romans, p. 404)
-“That this remarkable passage contains a prophecy, properly so called, respecting the people of Israel, is acknowledged by the great majority of expositors, both ancient and modern; and the context so positively requires us to understand Israelites after the flesh, that a different interpretation of the passage will never be able to gain a permanent foothold. It was only from a mistaken opposition to the Jews, and from apprehensions of fanatical abuse of the passage, that Chrysostom, Theodoret, and Jerome long ago, and in later days the reformers especially, were led to explain the Apostle’s words as relating to spiritual Israel. The correct application, however, was again established as early as Beza in the reformed/Calvinistic Church, and in the Lutheran by Calixtus and Spener. How forced the sense of the words is, according to that interpretation which refers them to the spiritual Israel, is apparent from the translation of the passage to which this leads: ‘Israel has been in part affected with hardness, throughout the whole time that the fulness of the Gentiles is entering the kingdom of God, i.e. while the Gentiles are entering into a body, individual Jews only will become Christians; there is no help to be expected for the Jewish people as a whole.) But then, (viz., when all the Gentiles shall have entered), will the whole spiritual Israel, made up of Jews and Gentiles, be blessed.’ The utter irrelevancy of this last sentence must be apparent to every one; it is only when applied to the fleshly Israel that it acquires a meaning.” (Biblical Commentary on the New Testomony, Romans, p. 373-374)
-“But when the fullness of the Gentiles has come in, then will all Israel, having been called again, be saved.” (The Music of Songs Commentary and Homilies, E-book III, Vol 26, p. 252)
-“Yet, after this, Jael, the Church, ‘went out to meet’ also the first people [Barak]who were pursuing Sisera. For Israel pursued ‘the law of righteousness, but did not arrive at the law.’ Therefore, the Church ‘goes out to meet’ even that one [Barak/the Jews (the first people)] and ‘shows’ him her work; she shows him the accomplished victory and invites him into alliance for having overthrown the enemies. For this true what the Apostle says will happen ‘at the end time’: ‘when the full number of the gentiles has entered in, then all Israel will be saved.’ Therefore, ‘primacy’ is indeed brought about ‘at the hand of’ a foreign ‘woman’; nevertheless, even Barak is not excluded from a participation in glory, he who indeed had begun as the first but arrived at the end as the last. On the contrary, until he arrives, Jael, the foreign woman, snatches a victory in a certain manner while escaping notice.” (Homily Five, Homilies on Judges)
Grant R. Osborne
-“At that time all Israel will be saved. And so means that by bringing the Gentiles to himself, ‘in this manner’ God would reach the Jewish people. This in fact is the process outlined in verses 11-14… The conversion of the Gentiles would arouse the Jews to envy and bring them to Christ. All Israel refers not to the Jewish people down through the ages but to the nation at the end of history who will be saved. The text clearly does not detail how this will come about but rather promises the event itself, with the Isaianic quote in verses 26-27 indicating that it will be connected to the parousia of Christ… The promise of Israel’s future salvation has developed throughout the section (11:1-24). At present there is a remnant who have come to Christ, but the majority in Israel have been hardened (vv. 1-10). Yet the purpose of this hardening has unleashed a powerful act of God whereby he first has brought the Gentiles to himself and grafted them into the olive tree. But even this act has been purposed to make the Jewish people jealous and cause them to want to regain their covenant relationship with God (vv. 11-24). The result is that after the Gentile mission is complete (v. 25), Israel will experience a national revival and come to Christ.” (Romans, p. 305-6)
-“The primary debate here is the meaning of all Israel, seen as (1) all the elect, comprising Jews and Gentiles alike… (2) the elect from Israel… or (3) the nation of Israel… The first is unlikely since the context is discussing Jews and Gentiles separately, and in verse 25 ‘Israel’ refers to the Jewish people. The second is possible but would be tautologous since by definition the elect will be saved. The third is most likely, but the question is whether this would lead to universalism, that every Jewish person will be saved (so Barth). But as Moo says, all Israel does not mean ‘every Israelite’ but is rather a corporate designation.” (ibid. footnote on p. 305-6)
-[Owen, commenting on Calvin’s interpretation of Romans 11:26]: “The explanation [Calvin gives] of this verse is by no means satisfactory. It does not correspond at all with what the Apostle has already declared in verses 11, 12, and 15; where the restoration of the Jews to the faith is most clearly set forth. Besides, by making Israel, in the next verse, to mean generally the people of God, the contrast, observable through the whole argument, is completely destroyed… Hammond tells us, that many of the Fathers wholly denied the future restoration of the Jews; and we are told by Pareus, who mentions some of the same Fathers, that they maintained it. But it appears from the quotations made by the first, that the restoration disallowed was that to their own land, and that the restoration referred to by the latter was restoration to the faith; two things wholly distinct. That ‘Israel’ means exclusively the Jewish nation, was almost the unanimous opinion of the Fathers, according to Estius; and their future restoration to the faith as here foretold was the sentiment held by Beza, Willet, Mede, and others, and is generally held by modern divines.” (Commentaries on the Epistles of Paul to the Romans, ed. John Owen (Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society, 1848), 436-37, n. 1)
-“[The bringing in of the kingdom of Christ awaits] The bringing home of his ancient people to be one fold with the fullness of the Gentiles, raising up the tabernacle of David, and building it as in days of old, in the accomplishment of innumerable promises, and in answer to millions of prayers put up at the throne of grace for this very glory, in all generations.” (The Sermons of John Owen)
-“[Paul] is showing that, just as the Gentiles were first of all shut up in sin and shut out of God’s covenant fellowship and then were saved by grace out of sin, so the Jews are going to be saved out of sin, the sin of unbelief.” (Partaking the Written Word of God, p. 200)
Earl F. Palmer
-“There is no escaping Paul’s own dramatic setting for the mystery that he is privileged to share with the church. God is not finished with Israel even though his people are rebellious. He will win them to faith.” (Salvation by Shock: A Commentary on the Guide of Romans, p. 134)
-“Though still quite popular in some circles, the idea that “Israel,” in Romans 11:26, refers back to the church at giant has little if any exegetical warrant. Whereas it is true that elsewhere Paul appears to allude to what’s typically referred to as “the spiritual Israel” (Rom. 2:28, 29; Gal. Three:6–9, 26–29; 6:16; Eph. 2:14), the decisive argument towards reading this concept into this passage is the context of Romans 9–11. Right here the time period Israel indisputably refers to ethnic Israel in every of its occurrences, especially the fast context in chapter 11, which clearly distinguishes Gentiles from Israel (v. 25). To begin with, the failure of ethnic Israel to obtain salvation is what was referred to as for in chapters 9–11. Moreover, earlier in chapter 11, Gentiles are explicitly distinguished from ethnic Jews: Gentiles are being grafted onto the olive tree while the Jews, as the natural branches, are being broken off. Indeed, to argue that Israel, in verse 26, consists of believing Gentiles, requires Paul to leap to a brand new which means for the time period Israel, for, in verse 25, he says that a partial hardening has encounter Israel until the fullness of believing Gentiles is reached. It seems obvious, then, that, in verse 26, “Israel” refers to ethnic Israel as distinguished from Gentiles. This is confirmed by verse 28 the place the distinction between ethnic Jews and Gentiles continues to be current.” (The Mystery of Israel’s Salvation: A Research of Romans 11:26)
-“That all the elect shall be saved? Who ever doubted that? But of the calling of the Jews there is doubt. He calls their salvation a secret or mystery but there is nothing mysterious about all the elect being saved. He shows that there is an unbroken reference to Israel/Jacob, that is, ethnic Israel. Before the end of the world the Jews in regard to their multitude will be called.” (A plaine exposition vpon the entire Eight. 9. 10. 11. chapters of the Epistle of Saint Paul to the Romans)
-“Hence I gather that the nation of the Jews shall be called, and converted to the participation of this blessing: when, and how, God knows: but that it shall be done before the end of the world we know.” (Works, Vol. 2, p. 231)
Friedrich Adolph Philippi
-“‘All Israel,’ in contrast with ‘in part’ of verse 25, can be understood of nothing else than the entire sum of the people of Israel. It’s application to the spiritual Israel (Gal. 6:16) is just as arbitrary as its application to the believing elect portion of the Jews. Such explanations merely show to what violent exegetical shifts interpreters can be led by preconceived opinions.” (Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, p. 220)
-“Not: all Israel could also be saved, but: all Israel will probably be saved. Not everyone agrees that “all Israel” refers to the nation as an entire alive in some future era. Some take “all Israel” to confer with the true religious Israel together with Jews and Gentiles. Others take it to check with the remnant of believing ethnic Israel that is being saved all along by means of religion in Christ. Each of those views deny what I’ve been arguing for—that there shall be an awesome and stupendous nationwide conversion of Israel some day.
Five Causes Why I Consider Romans 11:26 Refers to the Nation of Israel as a Entire:
So let me draw out a number of reasons again why I consider verse 26 (“And in this way all Israel will be saved”) signifies that sometime the nation as an entire (not necessarily each particular person; see 1 Kings 12:1; 2 Chronicles 12:1) can be transformed to Christ and be a part of the Christian church and be saved. And then we’ll conclude with some implications.
- I feel the term “Israel” in verse 25 and 26 most naturally seek advice from the same factor.
Verse 25: “Lest you be wise in your own conceits, I want you to understand this mystery, brothers: a partial hardening has come upon Israel. . . .” That must seek advice from the nation as an entire from era to era. He continues, “. . . until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And in this way all Israel will be saved.” I don’t assume the which means of Israel modifications between verse 25 and 26. The hardened Israel (the nation as an entire) will be the saved Israel (the nation as an entire).
- The reference in verse 26 to banishing ungodliness from Jacob matches with the national view of “all Israel.”
Verse 26: “And in this way all Israel will be saved, as it is written, ‘The Deliverer will come from Zion, he will banish ungodliness from Jacob.’” This appears most naturally to be a picture of Christ’s return at the second coming, and banishing ungodliness from Jacob refers most naturally to the removing of the hardening referred to in verse 25. “Jacob” isn’t a pure or typical reference to the elect remnant of Israel. The hardening lasts till the complete number of the Gentiles comes in (the climax of world missions), after which Christ comes and lifts the veil and removes the hardening—he banishes ungodliness from Jacob, from “all Israel.”
- The parallel between the two halves of verse 28 point to all Israel because the nation as an entire.
Verse 28: “As regards the gospel, they are enemies of God for your sake.” Now that half of the verse certainly refers to the nation as an entire—they are enemies of God. So the second half of the verse certainly refers back to the nation as an entire as properly: “But as regards election, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers.” The point of this verse is to point out that despite the fact that Israel now’s a covenant-breaking, unbelieving nation, that’s going to vary. The nation which are enemies now, shall be transformed later because of election and love.
- The parallels in verse 12 point in the identical path.
Verse 12: “Now if their [the Jewish nation’s] trespass means riches for the world [salvation for the Gentiles]and if their [the Jewish nation’s] failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full inclusion!” Right here “their full inclusion” most naturally refers to the similar nation as “their trespass” and “their failure.” So “their full inclusion” refers back to the salvation of “all Israel” and is nationwide.
- The same thing is true concerning the parallels in verse 15.
“For if their [Jewish nation’s] rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their [Jewish nation’s] acceptance mean but life from the dead?” The nation now rejected shall be accepted. So the “acceptance” of the Jewish nation most naturally refers back to the salvation of “all Israel”—the salvation of the nation as an entire some day.” (All Israel Will Be Saved)
-“The point there [Rom. 9:6] is this: the privileges given to Israel can never be construed to guarantee the salvation of any individual Jew or synagogue of Jews, and therefore the unbelief of Paul’s kinsmen cannot immediately be construed to mean that God’s word of promise has fallen. But in no way does 9:6b exclude the possibility that God’s intention may someday be to save ‘all Israel’ (11:26). And therefore 9:6b does not give us a warrant to construe the privileges of 9:4,5 (against the wording of the text) as the privileges of eschatological Israel (= the Church) to the exclusion of empirical-historical Israel. Why should Dinkler prefer to see a contradiction between Rom. 9:1-13 and Rom. 11:1-32 than to allow God’s intention for Israel’s future in 11:1-32 to help him see that Rom. 9:6b should not be construed to rule out a future for ethnic Israel?” (The Justification of God, p. 24)
“But, someone may say, if he saves the whole end-time generation, an Israelite will be able to boast legitimately: I was saved because I am a descendant of Abraham and so had a sufficient merit in God’s eyes! There are two responses to this objection: 1) the banishing of ungodliness from Israel (Rom. 11:26) will mean the elimination of precisely that attitude; 2) if anyone does manifest that attitude he will not be saved, since salvation is always on the same basis for Jew and Gentile.” (ibid. p. 27)
William S. Plumer
-“Paul was proving that the dark cloud which was hanging over the Jewish people should, in God’s own time, be dispersed, and that all Israel should be saved… There is a difference as to the meaning of ‘all Israel.’ Calvin extends it to all the people of God. If this be the correct view, we may understand the ‘all’ in an absolute sense. Then ‘all Israel’ in this verse embraces all believers, whatever their lineage and nationality may be and that to the end of time. ‘All are not Israel, which are of Israel.’ ‘He is a Jew, which is one inwardly.’ The other view makes ‘all Israel’ to mean the mass of the Jewish nation. In that case the word all must be taken in no absolute sense, as it simply designates the great body of Jacob’s descendants, who shall be living when the Jews shall turn to the Lord and accept their Messiah. This is pretty certainly the correct view of the passage.” (Commentary on Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, p. 552-553)
-“By Israel is not meant the whole church of God, consisting of Jews and Gentiles; so that word is used, Gal. 6:16, and elsewhere; for then, what he spake would have been no mystery at all: but by Israel here (as in the precedent verse) you must understand, the nation and people of the Jews. And by all Israel is not meant every individual Israelite, but many, or (it may be) the greatest part of them…. These prophecies and promises [from Isaiah 27:9; 59:20 and Jer. 31:33]though they were in part fulfilled when Christ came in the flesh, (see Acts 3:26,) yet there will be a more full and complete accomplishment thereof upon the Jewish nation and people towards the end of the world.” (Commentary on the Entire Bible)
St. Prosper of Aquitaine
-“He delayed for centuries while he was educating Israel, to enlighten the countless peoples of infidels; and now he allows that same Israel to go blind till the universality of the Gentiles enter the fold. He allows so many thousands of this people to be born and die and to be lost when only those whom the end of the world will find alive will attain salvation.” (The Call of All Nations, E-book 1, Cap. 21)
-“The great parsimony in bestowing grace which in past ages befell all other nations, is now the lot of the Jewish people. Yet, when the fullness of the Gentiles shall have come in, then a flood of the same waters of grace is promised for their dry hearts…When the Apostle Paul stopped in his knowledge and discussion of this problem and gave way to utter astonishment, who would be so presumptuous as to believe that he could try and explain it rather than admire it in silence?” (The Call of All Nations, Ebook 2, Cap. 9)
-“All Israel shall be saved; the Jews, as a nation, shall be converted to the Christian faith—shall acknowledge Jesus to be the Messiah, and thus be restored to the favor of God.” (A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, p. 77)
-“The consensus of Methodist commentators was that there would be a future conversion of Israel. This hope was based on Romans 11:25-26.” (The Hope of a Christian World: Wesleyan Eschatology and Cultural Transformation, The Arminian Journal, Difficulty 1 Spring 2007 Quantity 25 Web page 1-Four)
Reformation Research Bible
“He is showing how God will, in the future, bring such widespread salvation to the Jewish people that, in an obvious general sense, it can be said that “all Israel will be saved” (v. 26) … some type of this last view appears almost certainly for the following causes. First, hints of it seem to seem already in vv. 11, 12, 15, 16, 24. Second, v. 25 means that an finish to the partial hardening of Israel is in view. Third, “Israel” in v. 26 isn’t naturally interpreted as signifying a special entity from the Israel in view in vv. 1–24 and vv. 28–31, the place nationwide Israel (not religious Israel) is in view. Fourth, “mystery” in v. 25 would appear inappropriate and exaggerated if Paul’s educating have been merely that each one elect Jews might be saved. Lastly, this view accords properly with the quotations in vv. 26, 27 from Is. 59:20, 21; 27:9; Jer. 31:33, 34, which seem to speak of a complete banishment of that sin that has been the reason for Israel’s alienation from God.”
William E. Riddell
-““And so that,” or “and in this way,” or “and thus” all of Israel shall be saved. This expression, “and so that” is often used to suggest a fashion and end result. On this case, the way/technique is “a partial hardening until the end of the Gentiles” and the result’s “all of Israel shall be saved.” We see an analogous usage in Acts 27:44, where Paul was stranded in a shipwreck. Males floated on planks and pieces of ship and “in this way” they have been all delivered to shore. In other phrases, a “partial blindness” has occurred to Israel in order that or on this method all of Israel is perhaps saved. The rationale this is going to occur is because of Previous Testament guarantees relating to Jacob. However more than that, the astounding conclusion that Paul is about to disclose is that the saving of the Gentiles isn’t for their sake, but for the sake of the Jews!—that each one of Israel may be saved.
Many have argued that Paul’s use of “Israel” in this verse means religious Israel. They say that Paul actually means the remnant of saved Jews and Gentiles. It is true that Paul regularly speaks of religious Israel, however on this case, the obvious reading of “all Israel shall be saved” (11:26a) is that he have to be interested by hardened or blinded Israel (11:25b), which is ethnic Israel. First, verse 25 is speaking about an end-time occasion that is centered in his discussion concerning the hardened Jews, who’re his kinsmen. Second, this is what he’s calling the “mystery.” This thriller is a unique type than the mystery of the Christ and the church, which was a thriller to the Jews. That is now a mystery to the Gentiles. Paul’s foremost concept, at this point, is that this mystery is that the hardening of Israel shall be lifted after the fullness of the Gentiles. Paul grounds this concept in a quotation of the scriptures present in Isaiah 59:20-21 and 27:9. If Israel is simply religious or elect Israel, why apply Isaiah’s salvation to an already saved group? It have to be ethnic Israel who has rejected the gospel. Your complete level, going all the again to Romans 9:1, has been about hardened Israel. This is additional clarified within the verses to comply with: “As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sakes: but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers’ sakes. For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance.” (Romans 11:28-29) In these verses, Paul expands his primary concept. Israel is the enemy of the gospel. These are “enemies” on your sakes, however are nonetheless beloved for the sake of their fathers. In other words, these are the enemies of the gospel so you Gentiles could be saved, but even so, they are nonetheless beloved of God.” (Does Israel Have a Future?)
-“‘Full number’ stands over against Israel’s present ‘reduction.’ In an antithetical sense it also corresponds with ‘remnant’ (pleroma over against leimma) in verse 5… The entire argument of Romans 11:15-32 is intended to throw light not only on the possibility, but also on the certainty of this ‘acceptance’ and ‘fulness’ of Israel.” (Paul: An Define of His Theology, p. 357-58)
-“There is therefore no contradiction between the definition of the essence of the New Testament church as the people of God and holding to Israel as the object of God’s irrevocable gift of grace and calling.” (ibid., p. 360)
-“There were four men sent by the Church of Scotland: Andrew Bonar, Robert M’Cheyne, Dr Alexander Black and Dr Alexand er Keith. The purpose of the mission was to enquire into the state of the Jewish people in what had once been their homeland but which for many centuries now had been more or less occupied by other nations – or rather left desolate. What lay in the minds of these men and of those who were responsible for sending them was the belief which we refer to as the ‘Puritan hope’. That is to say the belief that one day in the future God will revive the Jewish people and graft them into the Church once more. The classic passages which refer to this prophecy are these. First Paul says: ‘There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer and shall turn ungodliness from Jacob’ (Romans 11:26).” (2010 Evangelical Library Lecture)
-“All Israel (pās Israēl). What does Paul mean? The immediate context (use of pās in contrast with apo merous, plērōma here in contrast with plērōma in Rom. 11:12) argues for the Jewish people “as a whole.” However the religious Israel (both Jews and Gentiles) may be his concept in accord with Rom. 9:6 (Gal. 6:16) because the climax of the argument. At any fee we should always attempt for and pray for the conversion of Jews as an entire.” (Phrase Footage in the New Testomony)
-“O to see the sight, next to Christ’s Coming in the clouds, the most joyful! our elder brethren the Jews and Christ fall upon one another’s necks and kiss each other! They have been long asunder; they will be kind to one another when they meet. O day! O longed-for and lovely day-dawn! O sweet Jesus, let me see that sight which will be as life from the dead, Thee and Thy ancient people in mutual embraces.” (Letters of Samuel Rutherford, Banner of Fact, Letter 50, p. 122-3)
-“So how do these references to the remnant of Israel provide evidence that God is faithful to His Word? It is because the remnant, the true Israel, is designed to be the earnest that God has given that one day God will fulfill His promise that ‘all Israel will be saved’ (Rom. 11:26-27). Arguing that today, Israel’s rejection of the Messiah Jesus is only partial (‘a partial hardening has come to Israel’) and temporary (‘until the full number of the Gentiles has come in’). But, in the future, when the Liberator comes from Zion, the entire nation will believe and then all Israel will know the Lord.” (The Individuals, the Land, and the Way forward for Israel, edited by Darrell Bock and Mitch Glaser, p. 264)
-“[The Jews] are kept separate that they may finally be saved, converted and restored to their own land. They are reserved and preserved, in order that God may show in them as on a platform, to angels and men, how greatly he hates sin, and yet how greatly he can forgive, and how greatly he can convert. Never will that be realized as it will in that day when ‘all Israel shall be saved.’” (Are You Prepared for the Finish of Time?, p. 137-138)
-“The future salvation of Israel as a people, their return to Palestine, and their national conversion to God appear as clearly and plainly revealed as any prophecy in God’s Word.”
-“Throw aside all prejudice, and view the subject with calm and dispassionate thought. Take up anew the prophetical Scriptures, and pray that you may not err in interpreting their meaning. Read them in the light of those two great pole-stars, the first and second advents of Jesus Christ. Bind up with the first advent the rejection of the Jews, the calling of the Gentiles, the preaching of the gospel as a witness to the world, and the gathering out of the election of grace. Bind up with the second advent the restoration of the Jews, the pouring out of the judgments on unbelieving Gentiles, the conversion of the world, and the establishment of Christ’s kingdom upon earth. Do this, and you will see a meaning and fullness in prophecy which perhaps you have never yet discovered. It is high time for Christians to interpret unfulfilled prophecy by the light of prophecies already fulfilled. The curses on the Jews were brought to pass literally:–so always will be the blessings. The scattering was literal:–so also will be the gathering. The pulling down of Zion was literal:–so also will be the building up. The rejection of Israel was literal:–so also will be the restoration.” (The Second Coming of Christ, p. 38)
-“In the discussion in chapter 11 Paul returns to the original question, ‘Has God cast away His people?’ answering it with an emphatic no. This answer is confirmed by two considerations: (1) the extent of Israel’s rejection is only partial (vv. 1-10), and (2) the duration of it is only temporary (vv. 25-32)… The partial nature of the rejection is illustrated by Paul’s own case… The gracious action of God in preserving to Himself a remnant is further proof that God has not cast away His people… God can easily graft in again the natural branches. Thus Paul makes it clear that the future restoration of the Jews is more probable than the salvation of Gentiles has been. Not only is that restoration highly probable but it is certain, for Israel’s rejection is not permanent (vv. 25-32). It is temporary because it is only ‘until’ a certain event. Since there is no other possible way to understand ‘until’ (v. 25), it is clear that the rejection must end eventually… Thus Israel’s future rests secure on the promises and nature of God.” (Biblical Theology of the New Testament, p. 214-15)
William Sanday & Arthur Headlam
-“πάς Ισραήλ. In what sense are these words used? (1) The whole context shows clearly that it is the actual Israel of history that is referred to. This is quite clear from the contrast with ‘the fullness of the Gentiles’ in verse 25, the use of the term Israel in the same verse, and the drift of the argument in verses 17-24. It cannot be interpreted either of the spiritual Israel, as by Calvin, or the remnant according to the election of grace, or such Jews as believe, or all who to the end of the world shall turn to the Lord. (2) πάς must be taken in the proper meaning of the word: ‘Israel as whole, Israel as a nation,’ and not as necessarily including every Israelite.” (A Essential and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, p. 335)
-“It is God who hardened part of Israel, it is God whose word will not fail (Rom. 9:6), and it is God who will see to it that all Israel is saved, though this does not happen apart from Christ.” (Paul, the Regulation, and the Jewish Individuals, p. 194; word: Sanders is referring right here to ethnic Israel.)
-“On the meaning of ‘all Israel,’ most contemporary scholars reject the first interpretation—that the phrase is a reference to the elect Jews and Gentiles of all ages—and they do so because of the context. In chapter 9-11, Paul uses the term ‘Israel’ no less than eleven times. The preceding ten indisputably denote the Jews as opposed to the Gentiles, and there is no compelling evidence to view the last use differently. Moreover, the close connection in thought between verses 25 and 26 demands ethnic Israel.” (The Case for Progressive Dispensationalism, p. 254)
-“The Word of God is explicit still about the future. In Romans 11:25 it is made clear that the blindness which now in part is happened to Israel is not forever, but “until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in”. After which what’s to return to cross? The 26th verse tells us that “all Israel” shall then be saved when the Deliverer “will turn away ungodliness from Jacob”. The 29th verse is one that Christians love and use for ourselves, “For the gifts and calling of God are irrevocable.” We might apply it to ourselves because God by no means breaks any promise but let us discover that the primary software on this place is to the Jew. God has promised nice issues for Israel as a nation, and the Word right here tells us that he will convey them to cross. If he doesn’t deliver them to move, then “the gifts and calling of God” are usually not “irrevocable”. Clearly, again, in Zechariah 12:10 it’s said that the day will come when the Jews, “will look on Me whom they have pierced; they will mourn for Him as one mourns for his only son.” In the day when Israel shall be saved they shall look upon Jesus and know that in His first coming he was their true Messiah. Once more, it isn’t solely the Previous Testomony, which guarantees that the land of Palestine will once extra belong to the Jews. Within the New Testomony, also, in Luke 21:24, we are informed that, “Jerusalem will be trampled by Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled”. The Word tells us that the day will come when “all Israel will be saved”, that the Jews will “look upon” Jesus as their true Messiah and that the Promised Land can be theirs as soon as more. It isn’t just for the past, not only for the present, but in addition for the longer term, that we who at the moment are Christ’s ought to love the Jew.” (The Bible-Believing Christian and the Jewish Individuals)
Philip Schaff & Matthew B. Riddle
-“All Israel shall be saved. This statement has been narrowed in many ways, and on the other hand the obvious sense has been loaded down with notions to which Paul does not allude, here or elsewhere. The view now generally adopted is: that the ancient people of God (so marvellously preserved in their distinctive life, as if in earnest of this) shall be restored, as a nation, to God’s favor. As in Rom. 11:25, it is not implied that every individual Jew will be converted; but probably the proportion will be greater than in the case of the Gentiles, since ‘all’ is more definite. We must also place in connection with this statement, the argument of Rom. 11:12; Rom. 11:15. But respecting the details of this restoration of the Jews as a body little has been revealed. The picture is everywhere drawn, only in broad outline. The attempt to fill it out has always produced a reaction, which has opposed even the obvious literal sense of the clause. Luther, Calvin, and others of the reformers denied the reference to the Jewish nation, mainly on dogmatic grounds. Whether Paul expected this to occur sooner or later does not affect the points revealed; chronological and prophetical nearness are not necessarily identical. The lengthening term of Israel’s unbelief presents cumulative evidence that Israel’s preservation is to the end that ‘all Israel shall be saved.’” (A Well-liked Commentary on the New Testomony)
-[Towards “all Israel” referring to the church, Thomas Schreiner, in his commentary on Romans, calls this argument decisive:] “The central and decisive objection to this interpretation is the context of Rom. 9-11, especially the immediate context of chapter 11. The failure of ethnic Jews to obtain salvation is what provoked chapters 9-11 in the first place. Moreover, the preceding verses in chapter 11 preserve a distinction between Gentiles and ethnic Jews: the Gentiles are being grafted onto the olive tree while the Jews–as the natural branches–are being removed.” (Romans, Baker Exegetical Commentary)
-“Romans 9–11 has increasingly been recognized by scholars to be a central part of the letter to the Romans. Moo concurs with this judgment and argues that it is an integral part of the Pauline gospel. Paul argues in this section that God’s promises to Israel have not been rescinded and that they will indeed be fulfilled. Some scholars have claimed that Paul’s argument in this section is internally contradictory, but Moo defends well the coherence of Paul’s thought. Other scholars have suggested that Israel will be saved without faith in Christ. This theory, though attractive, is shown to be wishful thinking through Moo’s careful exegesis of the text. What does Paul mean when he say that ‘all Israel shall be saved’ (Romans 11:26)? The idea that the reference is to both Jews and Gentiles is rightly rejected, for the Jews are distinguished from the Gentiles in chaps. 9-11. Moo argues that the reference is to ethnic Israel and that Paul predicts the salvation of a great number of Israelites near the second coming of Christ. In my opinion, this is the most satisfying interpretation of a controversial text.” (Reading Romans Theologically: A Evaluate Article, JETS, p. 649-650)
James M. Scott
-“The inclusive interpretation is improbable not only in light of the established usage of ‘all Israel,’ but also in view of Paul’s argument in context, where he explicitly contrasts ‘Israel’ and ‘the nations’ (cf. Rom. 11:1ff.). Thus, for example, the apostle states that ‘a hardening has come upon part of Israel, until the full number of the nations has come in’ (v. 25). Then, immediately after stating that ‘all Israel will be saved’ (v. 26), he supports this assertion with a citation of Isa 59:20-1 + 27:9, where ‘Jacob’ must refer to ‘Israel’ in the literal sense of all twelve tribes. In Rom 11:18, the apostle makes it abundantly clear that the ‘all Israel’ of v. 26 must be ethnic Israel, since it is obviously ethnic Israelites who are now ‘enemies for the sake of the nations’ and who ‘are beloved because of the fathers according to election.’” (Restoration: Previous Testomony, Jewish and Christian Views, edited by James M. Scott, p. 517)
Thomas Scott & Matthew Henry
-“The continued care of the Lord towards that people, and the final mercy and blessed restoration which appear intended for them, show the preserving patience and victorious love of God, to those whom he has chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world, and who he finally will save for his sake.” (A Commentary Upon the Holy Bible, Vol. 6, p. 80)
-“The last word of Christ and the apostle concerning this wonderful people—which, like the burning bush, are never consumed—is a word of promise and hope that their blindness will be removed, and that after the fullness of the Gentiles has come in, ‘all Israel will be saved.’ Rom. 11:26.” (Hebrews, A Dictionary of the Bible, ed. Philip Schaff, p. 370)
-“By the same token, Paul too inquired as to how, despite all else, it should happen that by the Word the Spirit of God would have a more powerful impact on the Gentiles than on the Jews. This observation, moreover, he expressed to all intents and purposes teleologically in this way: ‘a hardening has come upon part of Israel, until the full number of the Gentiles come in, and so all Israel will be saved.’ This statement, despite all else, means nothing other than that in comparison with the Jews it was precisely the Gentiles who were sick whereas it was the Jews who were well, and that on the whole, once the Jews would have come to be entirely surrounded by the greater health that the Gentiles had attained through the Gospel, they too would come to a feeling of their sickness.” (On the Doctrine of Election, p. 74; notice: this is an fascinating interpretation, however even Schleiermacher sees that Paul is speaking about ethnic Israel.)
Mark A. Seifrid
-“The ‘mystery,’ Paul explains, is that a hardening, partially, has encounter Israel. This ‘hardening in part’ also has a limited time: ‘until the fullness of the Gentiles has entered in’ (11:25c-d). This assertion is most naturally understood as an expression of Paul’s argument up to now in chapter 11. The ‘hardening in part’ is something of a litotes that describes the divine judgment on the nation that preserves a not inconsiderable ‘remnant’ as a sign of the coming salvation of Israel as an entire (11:1-9, 14). Paul has already made it clear that Israel’s ‘fall’ is just not ultimate, that God will finally settle for them again (11:11-16). He now makes clear that they will be ingrafted once more into ‘their own olive tree’—that is, into the group of religion that proceeds from Abraham (11:23-24)… ‘the fullness’ of Israel signifies the eschatological salvation of the nation as an entire… the Gentiles’ time will come to an finish, and when it does, the ‘hardening’ of Israel will end as properly… Paul does not forged apart his affirmation of the precedence of Israel: salvation remains ‘for the Jew first, and also for the Greek.’
…Paul’s point here is just not that each final member of Israel in all of time will probably be saved; if that have been the case, his deep lament, together with his willingness to endure his own condemnation for Israel’s sake, can be pointless. ‘All Israel’ does not signify every descendent of Abraham all the time; slightly, as an allusion to Scripture, it speaks of Israel as a company reality (e.g. Deut. 1:1; 5:1; 29:2; 31:11; Josh. 3:7; 1 Sam. 7:5). Paul is worried as an alternative about Israel as a nation, as a individuals with a history, as an ethnic reality. Christ alone remains the best way of salvation, however Israel’s approach to Christ will differ from that of the nations that hear the gospel: Israel will see and consider in him as the coming Redeemer, as Paul himself did. The final act in the drama of redemption shouldn’t be the formation of a church that consists largely of Gentiles, but the creation of salvation for the individuals of Israel. The gospel of Christ does not stand at odds together with his coming as Redeemer, but slightly broadcasts it. Earlier than that coming, then, Paul hopes to save lots of ‘some’ of his individuals. Because the bigger dynamic of the passage makes clear, the shocking turns within the path of God’s purposes are certainly not arbitrary. God’s untraceable ways reassert his proper over us as our Creator, who acts in the freedom of mercy.
…In fact, there have lengthy been totally different readings of Rom. 11, deciphering ‘Israel’ as referring to the church or the remnant of Israel throughout the ages (see Hoekema 1994). It is beyond the scope of the current work to interact in detailed debate with such readings, but two observations are applicable. First, such a reinterpretation of ‘Israel’ can hardly be reconciled with the apostle’s opening lament for his individuals in 9:1-29, which is echoed in the prophet Isaiah. Biblical lament arises solely in the face of unanswered promise. Likewise, Paul’s sorrow over the nation is hardly answered by a redefinition of the time period. Second, and more importantly, such readings remove us from recognizing our limited time and place as Gentiles (as most of us are), which is precisely what the apostle is making an attempt to stop.” (Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Previous Testament, edited by G.Okay. Beale and D.A. Carson, p. 672-3, 678; observe: see Seifrid’s whole comments, which are wonderful.)
-“Theological continuities between the Isaianic and the Romans contexts are very clear. Just as the prophet introduced in his oracle the notion of divine unsearchable power and wisdom to assure his audience that Yahweh’s plan of delivering and restoring Israel would surely be achieved, so also the apostle stresses God’s unsearchable power and wisdom in his concluding ‘praise-hymn’ so as to affirm that Israel will one day be re-accepted by her God.” (Paul’s Use of Isaiah in Romans: A Comparative Research of Paul’s Letter to the Romans, p. 246)
-“The Jews are not yet come in under Christ’s banner; but God hath persuaded Japhet to come into the tents of Shem, will persuade Shem to come into the tents of Japhet, Gen. ix. 29. The ‘fulness of the Gentiles is not yet come in,’ Rom. xi.25, but Christ, that hath the ‘uttermost parts of the earth given him for his possession, Ps. ii. 8, will gather all the sheep his Father hath given him into one fold… The faithful Jews rejoiced to think of the calling of the Gentiles; and why should not we joy to think of the calling of the Jews?” (The Full Works of Richard Sibbes, 1:99)
-“In Romans 11:26, Paul says that eventually all Israel will be saved. This proves that God still has a future for Israel. To say that this verse is referring to Christians as the true Israel is to reject the context of this verse which is clearly separating Jews from Gentiles (see all of chapter 11).” (Dispensationalism and Eschatology, p. 6)
-“It is surprising, how indifferent even pious Christians are on the subject of the future restoration of the Jews. Though the Scriptures speak so much of it, the generality are contented to be altogether ignorant of God’s designs respecting them… ‘All Israel shall be saved.’ Hitherto, even in the best ages, there have been but few that truly feared God: the great mass of the people have been ungodly; and the saints have been but as a remnant of them. But in that day ‘a spirit of grace and of supplication will be poured out upon them in a more abundant measure; and they will look on Him whom they have pierced, and mourn, even as one mourneth for his only son:’ and ‘they will all fear the Lord, from the least of them even unto the greatest of them:’ yea, so universal shall be the prevalence of real piety amongst them, that ‘every vessel in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness to the Lord; and there shall be no more the Canaanite in the house of the Lord of Hosts.’” (Horae Homileticae, Vol. 15, Romans, p. 442-443)
-“The Jews despised this King Christ and therefore they were blinded. Yet they shall return and come to Christ, their King David, as Paul testifies, saying: Blindness in part has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in. And so all Israel shall be saved, as it is written: There shall come out of Zion a deliverer, and shall turn away the ungodliness from Jacob. For this is my covenant with them, when I shall take away their sins. Is. 59:20. Since Israel is yet to be converted unto Christ, it follows incontrovertibly that the King David, who Israel shall seek, can be none other than Christ.” (The Full Works of Menno Simons, p. 38)
Philipp Jacob Spener
-“In the first place, we have the glorious prophecy of St. Paul and the mystery revealed by him in Romans 11:25-26, that after the full number of the Gentiles comes in, all Israel will be saved. So if not all, at least a perceptibly large number of Jews who have hitherto hardened their hearts will be converted to the Lord… In order for the Jews to be converted, the true church must be in a holier state than now if its holy life is to be a means for that conversion, or at least the impediments to such a conversion (which, as we have seen above, have hitherto consisted of offenses) are to be removed. On the other hand, if the Jews are converted by God’s power in a manner which it is impossible for us to foresee, it is unthinkable that the example of this newly converted people (who would undoubtedly have a zeal like that of the early heathen who were converte to Christianity) would not be followed by a remarkable change and improvement in our church.” (Pia Desideria, p. 76-77)
-“And so all Israel will be saved. The context indicates that Paul must be speaking of the Jewish people. He does not mean every Jew that ever lived, but the nation of Israel. Now why do I say that ‘Israel’ in this phrase refers to the Jews? All through his discussion Paul is talking about Israel in part: part of Israel has been blinded, part of Israel has been cut away, part of Israel has been stubborn, part of Israel has been excluded from the kingdom of God and its blessings. The Jews as a people are presently under judgment. But as there was a national judgment, so there will be a national restoration. Their rejection, even though it was a national rejection, did not include the rejection of every individual. So the restoration doesn’t necessarily mean that every individual Jew will be saved, but the nation as a nation will be restored to God.” (The Gospel of God, p. 236-237)
-“So all Israel will be saved. If Paul is referring to spiritual Israel, he is departing from the way he uses term Israel here and in the preceding three chapters. Since chapter 8 Paul has been talking about ethnic Israel.” (Romans, St. Andrews Expositional Commentary, p. 387)
-“Though blindness has happened to Israel in part, yet not to all Israel. The Lord knoweth them that are his, and he will save them by his grace. Better times are, however, coming even for Israel after the flesh, for in the latter days they shall be converted to the Saviour.” (Expositions of the Bible)
-“I think we do not attach sufficient importance to the restoration of the Jews. We do not think enough of it. But certainly, if there is anything promised in the Bible it is this. I imagine that you cannot read the Bible without seeing clearly that there is to be an actual restoration of the children of Israel. ‘Thither they shall go up; they shall come with weeping unto Zion, and with supplications unto Jerusalem.’ May that happy day soon come! For when the Jews are restored, then the fullness of the Gentiles shall be gathered in; and as soon as they return, the Jesus will come up Mount Zion to reign with his ancients gloriously, and the halcyon days of the Millennium shall then dawn; we shall then know every man to be brother and a friend; Christ shall rule with universal sway.” (Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit, I, no. 28, 1855, 382)
“The day shall yet come when the Jews, who were the first Apostles to the Gentiles, the first missionaries to us, who were far off, shall be gathered in again. Until that shall be, the fullness of the Churches’ glory can never come. Matchless benefits to the world are bound up with the restoration of Israel; their gathering in shall be as life from the dead.” (Spurgeon’s Sermons, Vol. 17, p. 703-Four)
James M. Stifler
-“The illogical notion that ‘Israel’ here is the spiritual Israel is no longer held. It is the fallen, rejected, natural Israel, the only nation in this age that has the promise of salvation as a whole. It will not merely be Christianized, but Christian… The word ‘Jacob’… found in the quotation, gives the meaning of the word ‘Israel’.” (The Epistle to the Romans, p. 196’ observe: Stifler exaggerates the truth by saying that commentators not hold the ‘spiritual Israel’ view. It is true, nevertheless, that the majority commentators do not maintain the ‘spiritual Israel’ view)
Kenneth M. Stiles
-“There’s merely no compelling purpose to not perceive Romans 11:26 as educating a
future salvation of nationwide, ethnic Israel. Not solely is it potential, even possible, that God will save the hardened majority of nationwide, ethnic Israel sooner or later, but Paul argues definitively in verses 25–27 that God will save the hardened majority of national, ethnic Israel… There is a remnant of chosen ethnic Jews on the earth proper now, the remaining are hardened. It isn’t the remnant that must be saved, or grafted again in, in Paul‘s argument here. It is the hardened majority. Paul argues that there is coming a time when all of the hardened majority of national, ethnic Israel will be saved. That time is pinpointed as when ‘the fullness of the Gentiles comes in.’” (‘All Israel Will Be Saved’: The Nature and Circumstances of the Salvation Mentioned in Romans 11:25-27, p. 9, 12-13)
-“ View (5) is that “all Israel” means the whole number of elect ethnic Jews, the sum complete of all Israel’s remnants throughout the current, inter-advent age. “All Israel” thus parallels the fullness of the Gentiles (v. 25). “And if ‘All Israel’ indicates, as it does, that not a single elect Israelite will be lacking ‘when the roll is called up yonder,’ then ‘the fullness of the Gentiles’ similarly shows that when the attendance is checked every elect Gentile will answer ‘Present’” (Hendricksen, Romans, 381).
Several objections have been raised towards this interpretation by advocates of the FR [Future Restoration] view. Most of these have already been answered earlier on this chapter. Let me right here respond to 2 others. Typically one hears that Paul have to be referring to a future restoration of Jews in vv. 25-26, for he has used the longer term tense repeatedly in this chapter every time describing salvation. However certainly this is no purpose for accepting the FR view, for a way else might Paul probably have spoken? If someone within the first century is writing concerning the salvation of others that has yet to occur, it is just normal that he should make use of the longer term tense. In other words, if Paul is describing in his day (clearly) the way through which all elect Israelites will come to faith up to the top of the age, how else might he have said it if not with the longer term tense? Might I also remind the reader of the repeated emphasis Paul makes on the present as properly (cf. 11:1-2,5,31).
Another objection goes something like this: “If all Paul meant to say is that all elect Israel will be saved, the climactic element in v. 26 is lost. Of course all the elect of Israel will be saved! How utterly prosaic!” However this objection fails to understand what that so-called climactic factor in v. 26 actually is. Paul shouldn’t be merely asserting that each one elect Israel can be saved however is describing the mysterious method during which it should happen. That’s, it isn’t so much the very fact as it’s the style by which they are going to be saved. It’s by the use of nothing lower than the unimaginable state of affairs of Jewish unbelief > Gentile salvation > Jewish jealousy and salvation > Gentile blessing. This is the best way by which all elect Israel will ultimately and progressively come to saving faith. Furthermore, in a context by which the question has been raised whether or not any Israelites might be saved (cf. 11:1-5), it is even much less prosaic, certainly, it is profoundly essential!
Is it suitable with what we read in the New Testomony to recommend that God will in the future obligate himself to save lots of all (or no less than most) of a specific group of people based mostly on an external, which is to say, non-spiritual attribute? Part of the phrase of the cross is that by his demise Jesus Christ has abolished the distinction between Jews and Gentiles so far as religious privilege is worried. Jews are nonetheless Jews and Gentiles are still Gentiles, but neither has any benefit over the opposite simply because he is a Jew or Gentile (Galatians Three:28). It’s religious circumcision of the guts, not physical circumcision of the flesh that avails earlier than God (Romans 2:25-29; Philippians Three:2-3). It isn’t Abraham’s blood but his faith that features entrance into the olive tree (Galatians 3:16-29). But when the FR view is right, a special state of affairs shall get hold of when Christ returns, by which one’s ethnicity alone both guarantees or at the least drastically will increase the chance of being saved.” (Romans 11 and the Way forward for Israel, Half II; observe: Storms misses Paul’s point. He is mistaken to say that the query in Romans 11 is whether any Israelite will probably be saved. The actual question is whether God has rejected His individuals [11:1]. Storms is flawed to say that Paul’s fundamental level is the way of Israel’s salvation. The actual level is the very fact of Israel’s salvation, which, as simply mentioned, is the good question of all the part. Lastly, Storms fails to differentiate between God’s election of Israel as a nation and the truth that in Christ there’s neither Jew nor Greek.)
-“In this passage in Romans, nevertheless, the mystery appears to be what he’s about to tell them. It consists of three consecutive truths. The primary is that Israel has skilled a hardening partially (25b). This reality is now new, since Paul has already said it in verse 7. As we now have already seen, it’s God who ‘hardens’ (9:18), though this can be a judicial course of by which he palms individuals over to their very own stubbornness. The ‘hardening’ takes the form of religious insensitivity. In the case of Israel it is the similar as the ‘veil’ which Paul elsewhere says lies over their hearts and minds.
But now the apostle stresses that it is just partial (partially), since not all Israelites have skilled it (i.e. not the believing remnant), and solely momentary (till…), since it can last solely till the second stage of God’s unfolding plan. This Paul now states: until the complete variety of the Gentiles has are available (25c). Whereas Israel stays hardened, and continues to reject Christ, the gospel can be preached throughout the world, and increasingly more Gentiles will hear and respond to it. And this process will proceed till the complete quantity or full complement (plēroma, the same phrase having been used of Israel in verse 12) of the Gentiles has been made up.
This can convey concerning the third stage: And so all Israel shall be saved (26a). The three primary words on this statement, specifically, ‘all’, ‘Israel’ and ‘saved’, want some investigation.
First, what is the id of Israel which is to be saved? Calvin believed it was a reference to the church. ‘I extend the word Israel’, he wrote, ‘to include all the people of God’, in order that, when the Gentiles have are available and the Jews have returned, ‘the salvation of the whole Israel of God, which must be drawn from both, will thus be completed.’ It is in fact true that Paul referred to the church as ‘the Israel of God’ in Galatians 6:16, but throughout Romans ‘Israel’ means ethnic or national Israel, in distinction to the Gentile nations. This is plainly so in verse 25 of this context; so the phrase might hardly take on a unique which means in the very next verse (26). The natural interpretation of the ‘mystery’ is that Israel as a individuals is hardened till the fullness of the Gentiles has are available, after which at that time (it is implied) Israel’s hardening can be over and ‘all Israel will be saved’. I do not assume John Murray was putting it too strongly when he wrote: ‘It is exegetically unattainable to provide to ‘Israel’ in this verse some other denotation than that which belongs to the term throughout this chapter.’
Secondly, there’s the word all. Whom does Paul intend to incorporate in ‘all Israel’? At present Israel is hardened apart from a believing remnant, and will stay so till the Gentiles have are available. Then ‘all Israel’ must imply the good mass of the Jewish individuals, comprising each the beforehand hardened majority and the believing minority. It needn’t mean actually each single Israelite. This is consistent with modern utilization. ‘“All Israel”’ is a recurring expression in Jewish literature,’ writes F.F. Bruce, ‘where it need not imply “every Jew without a single exception”, however “Israel as a whole.”’
The third phrase is saved. What sort of salvation is in view? The scriptural basis, which Paul now provides, will assist us to reply the query. It is a potpourri of three texts concerning the salvation of God’s individuals.
‘The deliver will come from Zion;
He will flip godlessness away from Jacob.
And this is my covenant with them
Once I take away their sins.’
These verses collectively make three affirmations. First, the deliverer will come from Zion. This was, in Isaiah’s unique, a reference to Christ’s first coming. Secondly, what he would do when he came was described in moral terms: he would ‘turn godlessness away from Jacob’. This appears to be an allusion to Isaiah 27:9, where Jacob’s guilt can be atoned for and eliminated. Thirdly, the deliverer would set up God’s covenant, which promised the forgiveness of sins. Putting these truths together, the deliverer would come to convey his individuals to repentance and so to forgiveness, in response to God’s covenant promise. It is clear from this that the ‘salvation’ of Israel for which Paul has prayed (10:1), to which he’ll lead his own individuals by arousing their envy (11:14), which has also come to the Gentiles (11:11; cf. 1:16), and which in the future ‘all Israel’ will expertise (11:26), is salvation from sin via religion in Christ. (Romans, p. 302-304; notice: though Stott writes right here of the salvation of the individuals of Israel as an entire, he rejects the conclusion that they’ll inherit the land of Israel as part of their salvation)
-“The Jews are the chosen, special people of God, the descendants of the noble patriarchs with whom the covenant was made, and to whom the promises were given. So then, in relation to election, and for the sake of the patriarchs (because God is faithful to his covenant and promises), he loves them and is determined to bring them to salvation. For the fact is that God never goes back on his gifts or call (29). Both are irrevocable. His gifts are the privileges he bestowed on Israel, which are listed in 9:4-5. As for his call, ‘God is not a man, that he should lie, nor a son of man, that he should change his mind. Does he speak and then not act? Does he promise and not fulfil?’ It is because of God’s steadfast faithfulness that we can have confidence in Israel’s restoration.” (Romans, p. 306)
-“There is going to be a wide spread turning of Jews to Jesus. The hardening that is taking place now that makes them blind to their own Messiah is only temporary. The veil is going to be lifted. They are going to see and believe – maybe hundreds of thousands, maybe more – someday in the history are [sic] going to believe and to be grafted back in.” (The Place of Israel; notice: on this specific sermon, contrary to his above commentary, Stott, like Calvin, interpreted ‘all Israel’ as ‘all the elect’, however however might nonetheless not avoid the thrust of Paul’s point in Romans 11)
-“When the fullness of the Gentiles shall have been joined to the Lord, then his ancient covenant people shall also be reclaimed… πάς here means all, in opposition to the ‘in part’ of the preceding verse. But whether this means strictly every individual, it would be difficult indeed to determine.” (A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, p. 490)
-“That which the apostle now imparts to the Romans he calls a ‘mystery.’ A ‘mystery’ is an occasion which has been ready by God and hidden from the world and its wisdom, however disclosed, as a matter of grace, to the apostle. In flip, now the apostle not solely might, but in addition should share it together with his fellow Christians (cf. similarly, 1 Cor. 2:7). And the first part of the thriller is this: The hardening, which Paul spoke of in 10:2f. and 11:8-10, is ordained to stay over nearly all of Israel solely until the ‘full number’ of the Gentiles who’ve been destined to salvation via the gospel (Mk. 13:10) have ‘entered in.’… Though which means the Gentiles should enter into the group of salvation before the massive a part of Israel and rejoice within the presence of God and his Son, their incorporation however turns into a sign for the salvation of ‘all Israel.’ For this is the second part of the mystery announced by Paul. As already indicated within the (Hebrew) text of Is. 59:20 (cf., moreover, Is. 45:17, 25), and anticipated within the early Jewish literature (T. Benj. 10:11; m. Sanh. 10:1), the individuals of God as an entire (and not merely the small remnant of 11:5, who’ve already now been chosen to consider in Christ) will participate in salvation. God stays trustworthy to his elective promise and won’t convey it to achievement solely partially, however absolutely. But the Scripture not solely says that each one Israel might be saved, it also indicates in what means this can take place. As declared in (Ps. 50:2 and) Is. 59:20f., the redeemer will seem from Zion, the mountain of God, and remove ungodliness from Jacob (= Israel). On the idea of 1 Thess. 1:10 (cf. with Rom. 5:9), there’s little question that the redeemer in view is Christ. The messiah, Jesus Christ, sent by God and descended as a man from the individuals of God (1:3f.; 9:5), will redeem the individuals of God from their sin at his arrival in glory, the so-called parousia from Zion (cf. 1 Thess. 2:19; Three:13; 4:15; 5:23; 1 Cor. 15:23 with Mtt. 24:3, 27, 37-39). After the acceptance of the Gentiles, his atoning dying also comes to profit the very individuals of God who’ve opposed Jesus and the gospel in an unknowing delusion (cf. 1 Cor. 2:8 with Rom. 10:3; 11:8-10). But now they’ll recognize that Jesus was and is not only the savior and Lord of the Gentiles, but in addition, and above all, was and is the shoot of the basis of Jesse sent by God as a affirmation of his guarantees to the individuals of God (Is. 11:10), that’s, that Jesus is the promised messiah (cf. Rom. 15:Eight, 12). He is the one who frees Israel from the guilt of its sin! For God promised to the Fathers of Israel, beginning with Abraham (9:4f.; Gal. 3:15-18), and repeatedly confirmed by way of the prophets Isaiah (cf. Is. 59:21) and Jeremiah (Jer. 31:31ff.), who based on Sir. 48:22ff. and 49:7 likewise belong to the Fathers of Israel, that the ultimate legitimate covenant association to proceed from God can be composed of the fact that Israel’s guilt can be forgiven (cf. Is. 27:9 with Jer. 31:34), and that the Spirit of God will enable God’s individuals to return to a genuine information of God (cf. Is. 59:21 with Jer. 31:33f.).
The mystery of revelation which Paul made recognized in Rome thus runs as follows: When the complete variety of the Gentiles have entered into the town of God and have been led into the group of salvation, the partial hardening of Israel might be taken away. In accordance with the biblical promise, Israel too, in its entirety, will thus be redeemed from its sins via the Christ who appears from Zion and likewise be led into the group of salvation. It is primarily this salvation of all Israel from the hardening of unbelief that’s the aim of salvation historical past, and never the fact that the Gentiles are already obtaining salvation. This understanding of the aim of redemptive historical past, which Paul right here proclaims as special information gained from revelation, God had imparted to him earlier than via Scripture, since Paul hears and reads them within the Spirit of religion as the phrase of the dwelling God (cf. the fixed reference to the talking and appearing of God as ‘I’ in 9:9, 13, 15, 17, 25, 33; 10:19-21; 11:27). The Pauline prophecy concerning history thus corresponds to his religious interpretation of Scripture.” (Paul’s Letter to the Romans, A Commentary, p. 171-Three)
-“This great prophet, this doctor taught in the third heaven, clearly foresaw that the Jews would remain in unbelief, until Christian missionaries should have succeeded in largely converting the gentiles of every name and nation, and in disseminating the holy scriptures in every language. He foresaw that the veil would then be taken away by the lucid comments which providence would give to prophecy. He saw that the Jews, struck with this work of heaven in causing the stumbling-stone, the rock cut out of the mountain without hands and filling the whole earth, would read their prophets with new eyes; would study their ancient targums or paraphrases with divine light, and perceive that their elder rabbins were in effect all Christians. What then shall the receiving them back be, but life from the dead? David Kimchi speaks to the same effect. “When Rome shall be laid waste, then salvation shall come to Israel.” Now as the Jews, estimated at seven tens of millions of individuals, wander in all nations, and converse all languages, heaven has reserved them in store as a world of missionaries, to look on Him whom their fathers have pierced, and glory only in the cross of the good Redeemer. The first Christians, after they got here into energy, retaliated on the jews the blood of Christ, and the persecution of their two thousand brethren, Acts Eight:4 : however now they nowhere discover pals like the true believers in Christ. Let us proceed that kindness in the direction of them, until the complete accomplishment of our Redeemer’s promise of one fold, and one shepherd. John 10:16.” (A Commentary on the Previous and New Testomony; word: an 18th century Wesleyan commentator; Sutcliffe, though a postmillennial, affirms the salvation of the Jews at the finish of the age)
-[Commenting on the relationship between Christians and Jews]: “For it will be fitting for the Christian to rejoice, and not to grieve, at the restoration of Israel, if it be true, (as it is), that the whole of our hope is intimately united with the remaining expectation of Israel (Rom 11:25).” (On Modesty, Ch. 7)
-“Christ is the proper and legitimate high priest of God. He is the Pontiff of the priesthood of the uncircumcision, constituted such, even then, for the Gentiles, by whom He was to be more fully received, although at His last coming He will favour with His acceptance and blessing the circumcision also, even the race of Abraham, which by and by is to acknowledge Him.” (Contra Marcion, Ch. 9)
Theodore of Mopsuestia
-“[The Jews] will not always remain outsiders to true religion: there will be a time when they will also know the truth, as soon as people everywhere may receive knowledge of true religion.” (Theodore of Mopsuestia’s Commentary on Romans: An Annotated Translation, ed. And trans. Charles David Gregory, p. 109)
Theodoret of Cyrus
-“Paul insists that only a part of Israel has been hardened, for in fact many of them believe. He thus encourages them not to despair that others will be saved as well. After the Gentiles accepted the gospel, the Jews would believe.” (Historic Christian Commentary on Scripture, Bray, Volume VI, p. 298)
-“Paul claims in Romans 11:7-32 that although it may not appear that way, God still plans to be faithful to his people Israel and that one day all Israel will be saved through faith in Christ. Contrary to expectations, God has planned to do this by bringing such large numbers of Gentiles into the company of his people that they will outnumber the Jews. This does not mean, however, that the Jews will be excluded. Rather, the Gentiles will provoke them to jealousy for the promises that God gave to them in their Scriptures, and this in turn will lead them to embrace the gospel.” (Theology of the New Testament: A Canonical and Synthetic Strategy, p. 39)
Samuel H. Turner
-“St. Paul is addressing himself principally to the Gentiles converts. In order to prevent them from cherishing feelings of superiority over the Jewish nation, he informs them of what they did not know before, namely, that the unhappy spiritual condition of the Jews was only partial and transitory. ‘In part’ is better connected with Israel than with blindness. The meaning is not, ‘blindness in some respects has affected them,’ but, ‘it has taken place on a part of them.’ This phrase is in evident contrast with ‘all Israel’ in the next verse. The expression is like the modified language of v. 17, ‘some of the branches are broken off,’ and doubtless was prompted by the same motive. The next point shows this state to be temporary: ‘until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in.’… ‘All Israel:’ That is, the whole nation which shall then subsist. Such expressions are often used in a general sense.—‘Shall be saved:’ In other words, converted to the Gospel and partake of its blessings. Compare 10:1.” (The Epistle to the Romans in Greek and English, p. 206-207)
Merrill F. Unger
-“Restoration of the Nation Certain, 25-36. It is assured by special revelation, 25… This truth is that of Israel’s partial blindness during this age, which is to last till ‘the fullness of the Gentiles’ is effected, 25. This means the completion of God’s purpose in calling out a people from the Gentiles in this age (Acts 15:14). The restoration of the nation is the subject of prophecy. The kingdom is to be restored to Israel, 26 (Acts 1:6; 15:15-17). All Jews living at the second advent will be saved when Christ the Deliverer shall come out of Zion, 26, as Isaiah predicted (Isa 59:20-21). The new covenant with converted Israel, 27, was foretold by Isaiah (27:9) and Jeremiah (31:31-37; cf. Heb 8:8; 10:16). The restoration of the nation is according to the divine plan, 28, and the divine principle, 29. Although she is temporarily hostile to the gospel, the election of Israel as a nation is irrevocable. God has not changed His mind about the covenants and promises made to the nation. The restoration of the people will constitute a fulfillment of God’s purpose, 30-32, and redound to God’s glory, 33-36.” (Unger’s Bible Handbook, p. 621-622)
Juan de Valdes
-“By the words ‘all Israel,’ it appears that he means all the Israelites who shall then, at that time, be found living.” (Commentary Upon St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, p. 217; word: Valdes, 16th century Reformer, was uncertain concerning the which means, and solely here writes what to him “appears” to be Paul’s which means)
-“This grafting in again seems to import that the Jews shall be a flourishing nation again, professing Christianity in the land of promise, for that is to be reinstated again in the promise made to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob… In the prophets there are very plain intimations of it.” (quoted in Henry and Scott, A Commentary Upon the Holy Bible, Vol. 6, p. 79)
Van Den Berg
-“For virtually all Dutch theologians o f the seventeenth century, ‘the whole of Israel’ indicated the fullness of the people of Israel ‘according to the flesh’: in other words, the fullness of the Jewish people. This meant that there was a basis for an expectation of a future conversion of the Jews—an expectation which was shared by a large majority of Dutch theologians.” (Eschatological Expectations In regards to the Conversion of the Jews within the Netherlands In the course of the Seventeenth Century, Puritan Eschatology: 1600 To 1660, ed. Peter Toon [Cambridge: James Clarke, 1970],p. 140.)
P.H.R. van Houwelingen
-“At the heart of this exegetical discussion we find the Greek words καί ούτως (v. 26). It is questionable, however, whether the weight often attached to these words is justified. Regardless of how this expression is understood, it must be acknowledged that there is something conditional about it: the text presents a contrast between a part of Israel and all Israel. A part of Israel is hardened, but when the condition-the coming in of the Gentiles-is satisfied, all Israel will be saved.”
The phrase καί ούτως has three attainable meanings: temporal (after that each one Israel will probably be saved); modal (on this method all Israel can be saved); or, logical (in the identical means, all Israel will probably be saved). Presently, the temporal interpretation is gaining favor and rightly so, for the temporal which means of καί ούτως has been shown to exist in postclassical Greek, and Paul makes use of it this manner elsewhere. It’s also clear that the apostle is considering of a progression in time because “until” (άχρι ού) also indicates the passage of time (cf. the “then-now” scheme in vv. 30-31). Nearly all of the church fathers comply with this line of interpretation using “then” or “after that.” The purpose is that, not how, all Israel shall be saved.
The expression “all Israel” (πάς Ισραήλ) happens only as soon as within the New Testomony however is discovered in the Septuagint… This expression could be understood as the New Testament church consisting of Jews and Gentiles. Nevertheless, in Romans 9-11, the identify “Israel” is persistently used in an ethnic sense, which means the Jewish individuals. The place a narrowing within this group is possible (see Rom. 9:6: Not all who’re descended from Israel are Israel.), an extension to others outdoors the group just isn’t. Furthermore, the significant use of’ “Jacob” in the instantly following quotation can solely be a reference to the twelve tribes of Israel. The phrase can be understood because the trustworthy remnant of Israel, representing the complete individuals. This, nevertheless, wouldn’t match with Paul’s earlier hopeful speech concerning the full number and acceptance of Israel (Rom. 9:11, 15). Paul’s query revolves across the destiny of a individuals who have hardened themselves in disobedience (Rom. 11:1): Does a disobedient Israel still have a future? In Paul’s chain of thought, the chosen part of Israel (εκλογή; Rom. 11:7) is just Israel in a nutshell; “Israel” is in apposition to “the others” who have been hardened. It’s also argued that the phrase refers to each single Israelite. Nevertheless, πάς Ισραήλ is just not the identical as πάντες οί Ισραηλίται. Furthermore, in Romans 9:3, Paul says that he can be prepared to be reduce off from Christ, to sacrifice himself and take the place of his countrymen who stay without Christ, for aside from Israel’s Messiah there isn’t any salvation. The contrast between religion and unbelief is central to Romans 11. Not to be hardened in unbelief is an indispensable condition for being acquired once more (Rom. 11:23). Lastly, the phrase can seek advice from Israel as an entire. This reading may be comparing “the fullness of Israel” and its counterpart, “the full number of the Gentiles.” An often-quoted assertion from the Jewish Mishnah says: “all Israel has a share in the world to come.” Then, immediately following that phrase, we find a lengthy record of people who, because of their sins, haven’t any share on the earth to return. In any case, Israel shouldn’t be a sum of particular person persons however a collective entity of twelve tribes; after his conversion, Paul nonetheless thought-about himself to be a Jew, of the tribe of Benjamin (Rom. 11:1b; Phil. Three:5). In the visions in Revelation, we also encounter the twelve tribes of Israel, first as a messianic army of 144,000 warriors from all the tribes of Israel (Rev. 7:1-9), after which within the names inscribed on the gates of the new Jerusalem, the abode of all the tribes of Israel (Rev. 21:12). Hence, all Israel refers to the entire of Israel—its twelve tribes together.” (The Redemptive-Historic Dynamics of the Salvation of ‘All Israel’ [Rom. 11:26a]Calvin Theological Journal 46, p. 305-7)
-“Paul’s third crucial statement concerning Israel was that the rejection of Israel is not final. There is a day coming when ‘all Israel will be saved’ (11:26). Paul talks about ‘their full inclusion’ (11:12), ‘their acceptance’ (11:15), and their being ‘grafted back’ (11:23,24). It is only ‘until the full number of the Gentiles come in’ (11:25) that the present state of affairs will continue.” (Paul and Romans, p. 82)
Cornelis P. Venema
-“`Israel’ in this phrase should seek advice from the particular individuals of God, not all the elect, whether or not Jew or Gentile, gathered throughout the whole thing of redemptive history. It’s because the time period is used a minimum of eleven occasions in Romans 9-11, and in each instance it refers to the individuals of Israel. It’s onerous to see why Romans 11:26 ought to be an exception.
To take ‘all Israel’ as a reference to the entire variety of the elect among the many individuals of Israel throughout all the historical past of redemption can be anti-climactic and largely irrelevant to the Apostle Paul’s curiosity in Romans 9-11. In these chapters, as we now have seen, the apostle is coping with the mystery of God’s will for the salvation of the individuals of Israel, a individuals who have principally disbelieved the gospel however whom God has not forsaken nor forged off irrevocably. Have been the reference only to all of the elect of Israel, the whole thing of the remnant in accordance with God’s objective of election, it might not reply to the argument that the Apostle Paul specifically develops in this on this passage.
The argument of this passage is that the hardening of the individuals of Israel will ultimately come to an end, and this can happen after the individuals of Israel have been provoked to jealousy by the conversion and riches of the fullness of the Gentiles. By way of their being provoked to jealousy, the fullness of Israel (11:12) will come to salvation. This fullness is the equal in Romans 11 of what’s variously described because the acceptance of Israel (11:15), the grafting in of Israel (11:23-24), or the ‘all Israel’ of this phrase (11:26).
Although the expression ‘and so’ that is used in Romans 11:26 refers primarily to the way through which all Israel can be saved — that is, as Israel is provoked to jealousy by the conversion of the Gentiles — its temporal facet cannot be suppressed. In Romans 9-11 the Apostle Paul is describing an apparent sequence of events within the history of redemption: the unbelief of the individuals of Israel leads to the preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles; the religion and conversion of the Gentiles thereupon leads to the jealousy and subsequent conversion of the fullness of Israel. Inside this sequence of occasions, the phrase ‘and so all Israel shall be saved’ most naturally appears to mean that after the fullness of the Gentiles is ingrafted, the time will come when the individuals of Israel, provoked to jealousy, shall be converted and God’s purposes of redemption be completed in them.
Lastly, the primary level of Romans 11:25 appears to be that the hardening of Israel will come to an finish and thereupon Israel shall be restored. This point would truly be undermined, have been we to know the ‘all Israel’ of Romans 11:26 to be a reference only to the entire variety of the elect individuals of Israel, who make up only a remnant all through the history of redemption.
Though these issues might be elaborated upon and numerous objections answered further, this must be enough to point out that the most certainly reading of this passage is one that takes it to show the longer term ingathering and conversion of the totality of the individuals of Israel. This doesn’t mean necessarily that every individual member of the individuals of Israel will finally be saved, or that each one members of this individuals can be converted at some future time. The fullness of Israel need not imply the salvation of every member of this individuals any more than the fullness of the Gentiles means the salvation of each Gentile. Nevertheless, it does recommend that the Apostle Paul taught that by way of the preaching of the gospel to the nations the time will come through which a fullness of Israel can be transformed, an ingrafting once more of Israel as a individuals, a restoration of this special individuals of God to gospel favour and blessing.” (The Promise of the Future, p. 136-Eight)
Michael J. Vlach
-“In sum, the early church adopted a moderate form of supercessionism in regard to Israel and the church. The church believed that the nation of Israel had been rejected by God because of its disobedience and rejection of Christ. This rejection appeared to be confirmed by the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 and 135. The early church held that the church was now the new Israel and that the Scriptures, covenants, and promises given to Israel were now primarily the possession of the Christian church. Yet there was a consensus among the theologians of this era that the nation of Israel would be converted in the last days in connection with the promises of the OT prophets and Paul’s words in Romans 11. According to some, this salvation was to be accompanied by a repossession of Israel’s land by the tribes of Israel. Thus, the early church’s doctrine of Israel included the element of hope. Thus, while we rightly note the early church’s adoption of moderate supercessionism, we must not neglect the fact that it also believed in a future salvation of Israel based on OT and NT passages.” (Has the Church Changed Israel? A Theological Evaluation, p. 49-50)
-“The issue begins with the 2 seemingly innocuous little phrases And so. They might be interpreted in certainly one of two ways: (a) The reference could possibly be to the way by which Israel is saved.
That is defined by the previous verse. They’re hardened partially, but there will come a time when that hardening is lifted: “And so all Israel will be saved.” Paul’s thought would then decide up from the thought of partial hardening in v. 25. This is how nearly all of English translations render the expression. (b) The reference could possibly be to the time when Israel is saved. Paul’s thought would then decide up from the last clause in the earlier verse: “until the full number of the Gentiles has come in”. A minority of English translations and paraphrases take the expression on this temporal sense. Although some interpreters firmly insist that the underlying Greek expression (Kat ouTWS) by no means has a temporal which means, it is troublesome to select between these two options. It isn’t unattainable that the word ouTws on this instance doubles as both an adverb of manner (so, thus) and an adverb of time (then). Inside the context of Paul’s fast argument it’s clear that he is asking two questions. First he asks, How will all Israel be saved? His reply is in v. 25: By the removing of the partial hardening it has been experiencing. His second query is, When will all Israel be saved? Once more his answer is in v. 25: When the fulness of the Gentiles has are available. Firstly of v. 26 Paul is subsequently choosing up each these strands of thought from v. 25. He is addressing each the way and the time of the salvation of all Israel. Whereas the emphasis could also be on the way of Israel’s salvation, the time aspect can’t be excluded. Hvalvik perceptively embraces both meanings in what he calls the “logical” sense of the expression. His conclusion tersely captures the essence of Paul’s thought at this level: “This means that the salvation of the Gentiles – according to God’s plan – is a presupposition and condition for the salvation of ‘all Israel’.”
All Israel shall be saved: From the sooner dialogue of the literary context to this expression, it has grow to be clear that, inside the broad framework of Paul’s argument in Romans 9-11, Israel is used persistently in an ethnic sense. He’s talking of those that are Jews by race and youngsters of Abraham by descent. In his discussion he refers to Israel a minimum of 11x (9:6 [his]27 [his]31; 10:19, 21; 11:2, 7, 25, 26). Despite the fact that he makes a distinction in 9:6, it isn’t between Jews and Gentiles. Quite he is referring to an Israel within Israel (“Not all who are [descended] from Israel are Israel”). Most telling for our exegesis is the truth that Israel has been explicitly distinguished from the Gentiles as lately as v. 25. It is troublesome to consider that without warning Paul would change the which means of such a key time period inside the area of a single sentence.” (Rethinking Israel: An Exposition of Romans 11:25-27, p. 37-38)
-“With respect to national privilege, while temporarily abolished now that its purpose has been fulfilled, there still remains reserved for the future a certain fulfillment of the national elective promise. Israel in its racial capacity will again in the future be visited by the saving grace of God [Rom. 11.2, 12, 25].” (Biblical Theology, Previous and New Testaments, p. 79)
-“To the events preceding the parousia belongs, according to the uniform teaching of Jesus, Peter, and Paul, the conversion of Israel (Matt. 23:39; Luke 13:35; Acts 1:6,7; 3:19, 21; where the arrival of “seasons of refreshing” and “times of restoration of all things” is made depending on the [eschatological] sending of the Christ to Israel), and this once more is claimed to rely upon the repentance and conversion and the blotting out of the sins of Israel; Romans 11, the place the issue of unbelief of Israel is solved by the twofold proposition: (1) that there’s even now among Israel an election in line with grace; (2) that in the future there shall be a complete conversion of Israel (vss. 5, 25-32).” (The Worldwide Commonplace Bible Encyclopedia)
-“A study of the context bears out the fact that the word Israel as used in this passage is in contrast to Gentile. This is clear in Romans 11:1, where Paul identifies himself as an Israelite because of his connection with the tribe of Benjamin—a racial and national relation rather than spiritual. The contrast is made further in Romans 11:11ff. The use of “ye,” i.e., the Gentiles, is opposed to “they,” i.e., the Jews. In different words, your complete chapter rigorously preserves the distinction between two courses—Jews and Gentiles. Additional, the Gentiles are usually those that have believed in Christ and members of the church. The contrast shouldn’t be, subsequently, between believing Israel and unbelieving Gentiles, however moderately the two teams are treated racially. There isn’t a floor no matter on this passage for the concept Israel is a reference to all believers as such—the interpretation advanced by Origen, furthered by Calvin, and embraced by most amillennialists. This interpretation would nullify the very theme of the chapter.” (Eschatological Problems IX: Israel’s Restoration)
-“ The antecedent of the supplied “they” in v. 28 is “them” in v. 27, which refers back to “Jacob” in v. 26b, which in flip refers again to “all Israel” in v. 26a. This is vital as a result of it indicates that the group of individuals described in v. 28 is identical group designated by the term “all Israel” in v. 26. Put one other approach, Paul’s words in v. 28 describe the “all Israel” of v. 26 and help to determine its id… The outline of “all Israel” in Rom 11:28, then, not only indicates that the unbelieving nation as an entire is in view, but in addition points to the truth that that nation will at some point be restored. God made specific guarantees to the nation of Israel, and her refusal to embrace Christ and the gospel didn’t imply that the gospel had failed or that God would fail to satisfy these guarantees. Within the phrases of Bloesch: “His rejection of his people is not final but only provisional. In the No of God’s rejection is hidden the Yes of his election.” All Israel shall be saved… It’s clear that solely the interpretation of view 3 [that ‘all Israel’ in v. 26 is ethnic Israel] corresponds to the dual standing of “all Israel” as portrayed in Rom 11:28, for less than this interpretation envisions a state of affairs by which each clauses of the verse are concurrently and presently true of the entity “all Israel.” On the one hand the unbelieving nation of Israel is an enemy of God, but on the opposite she is beloved by Him. When the partial hardening of Israel is eliminated at the end of the present age (Rom 11:25), her current “transgression” will give strategy to her “fulfillment” (Rom 11:12); her present “rejection” will give strategy to her “acceptance” (Rom 11:15); and the natural branches will probably be grafted back in (Rom 11:23-24). And in this manner, all Israel might be saved in accordance with God’s covenantal love and in achievement of His promises (Rom. 11:26-27). God has not, and will not, forsake His chosen nation.” (The Master’s Seminary Journal, The Twin Standing of Israel in Romans 11:28, p. 61-62, 71; notice: see entire article)
-“Then there is Romans 11, where Paul is concluding a long discussion of the Jews’ unbelief and failure to come into the Church. He sees them as under God’s wrath at present, hence their hard hearts (cf. 9:22); but he says: ‘a hardening has come on part of Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles come in, and so all Israel will be saved’ (11:25). This is intriguingly similar to Luke 21, where Jesus talks about wrath on the Jewish nation and about Jerusalem being ‘trampled under foot by Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled’ (v. 24). The ideas are not identical—in Romans there is no reference to Jerusalem being invaded or trampled on—but there is a broad parallel between the passages, which could point to Paul’s familiarity with the relevant teaching of Jesus.” (Paul and Jesus: The True Story, p. 105-6)
-“”All Israel will probably be saved,” so Romans 11.26 says. But who are “all Israel”? Some see them as “the elect” of Romans 9.6, i.e., all true Christians; others see them as solely Jews… Romans 11.25 says that “blindness in part is happened to Israel until the fulness of the gentiles should come in.” Now if, as most Christians do, we accept that the blindness impacts physical Israel then in the next verse the ‘all Israel’ should still be bodily Israel. The ‘Israel of God’ is Israel’s remnant of true believers, the ever-preserved seed, by no means completely minimize off, until God be deemed untrue to His word. If for no other cause than that of Ezekiel 36.22, God will go on restoring Israel for His identify’s sake and due to His promise to Israel’s forefathers, a promise that stretches to ‘thousands’ of generations (Deuteronomy 7.9).” (Who’s ‘Israel’ and What is Her Future?)
-“Arrange the attracting signal
And summon whom Thou dost approve
For messengers divine.
From Abraham’s favoured seed
Thy new apostles select
In isles and continents to spread
The dead-reviving information.
Them snatched out of the flame
Via every nation send
The true Messias to proclaim
The common Pal.
That each one the God unknown
Might study of Jews to adore
And see Thy glory in Thy Son
Until time shall be no extra.
O that the chosen band
May now their brethren convey
And gathered out of every land
Current to Sion s King.
Of all the ancient race
Not one be left behind
But each impelled by secret grace
His option to Canaan find!
We all know it have to be achieved
For God hath spoke the word
All Israel shall their Saviour personal
To their first state restored.
Rebuilt by His command
Jerusalem shall rise
Her temple on Moriah stand
Once more, and touch the skies.
Ship then Thy servants forth
To name the Hebrews residence
From west and east, and south, and north
Let all the wanderers come.
The place’er in lands unknown
Thy fugitives stay
Bid every creature help them on
Thy holy mount to realize.
An providing to their God
There let them all be seen
Sprinkled with water and with blood
In soul and body clear.
With Israel’s myriads sealed
Let all of the nations meet
And show Thy thriller fulfille d
The family full.” (Almighty God of Love, Brief Hymns on Choose Passages of the Holy Scriptures, revealed in 1762)
-“Father of trustworthy Abraham, hear
Our earnest go well with for Abraham’s seed;
Justly they claim the softest prayer
From us, adopted in their stead,
Who mercy by means of their fall acquire,
And Christ by their rejection achieve.
However hast Thou lastly forsook,
Perpetually forged Thy own away?
Wilt Thou not bid the outcasts look
On Him they pierced, and weep, and pray?
Sure, gracious Lord, Thy Word is previous;
All Israel shall be saved eventually.
Come, then, Thou great Deliverer, come!
The veil from Jacob’s heart take away;
Receive Thy historic individuals residence,
That, quickened by Thy dying love,
The world might their reception find
Life from the lifeless for all mankind.” (Father of Trustworthy Abraham, Hymns of Intercession, 1758.)John Wesley
-“And so all Israel shall be saved – Being convinced by the coming of the gentiles. But there will be a still larger harvest among the gentiles, when all Israel is come in.” (John Wesley’s Explanatory Notes on the Entire Bible)
Daniel D. Whedon
-“All Israel—The apostle is speaking of the Israel existing at the time of the blessed plenitude of the Gentiles.” (Commentary on the New Testament, Meant for Well-liked Use, Acts-Romans, p. 374)
-“Hence the Second Argument for a general Conversion of the Jews runs thus: If that part of the Jews to which blindness hath happened, shall be delivered from that heavy Judgment, if there shall come to them out of Zion a Deliverer to turn away their iniquity, if God will accomplish his Covenant hereafter with them, by taking away their sins, then they who are thus blinded, shall be converted to the Christian faith. Where note, That this Promise is made to that part of the Jews to which blindness had happened, v. 15, and so the Promise of Salvation to this Israel, cannot be interpreted of all the true Children of Abraham, Jews and Gentiles both.” (A Paraphrase and Commentary on the New Testomony, p. 65; notice: 17th century commentator)
-“To strengthen the Arguments which I have offered from this Chapter for the Conversion of the Jewish Nation to the Christian Faith, let it be noted, That this hath been the constant Doctrine of the Church of Christ, owned by the Greek and Latin Fathers, and by all Commentators I have met with on this Place.” (A Paraphrase and Commentary on the New Testament, Appendix to Chap. XI, p. 89)
-“Moreover, As this Doctrine hath the suffrage of all the Historic Fathers, and Commentators do thus usually agree in Exposition of this Chapter, so is it straightforward to verify it by displaying the absurdity of other Expositions, and the plain inconsistence of them each with fact, and with the words of the Apostle. (See his arguments, A Paraphrase and Commentary on the New Testomony, Appendix to Chap. XI, p. 91-101)
-“Paul saved his greatest witness for the last. He proved that the very character and work of God have been involved in the way forward for Israel. Males might dispute about prophecy and differ in their interpretations, but let each man understand that he’s coping with God’s individuals, Israel.
God’s timing. What has happened to Israel is all part of God’s plan, and He knows what He is doing. The blinding (or hardening, Rom. 11:7) of Israel as a nation is neither complete nor remaining: it’s partial and momentary. How long will it final? ‘Until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in’ (Rom. 11:25). There’s a ‘fullness’ for Israel (Rom. 11:12) and for the Gentiles… Romans 11:25 is one in every of several ‘until verses’ within the Bible, all of that are necessary. Read Matthew 23:32-39; Luke 21:24; and Psalm 110:1 for different references. It’s reassuring that God is aware of what time it is and that He’s by no means late in fulfilling His will.
God’s promise. There reference here is Isaiah 59:20-21; and also you should learn Isaiah 60 to finish the picture. God has promised to save lots of His individuals, and He will hold the promise. There are those that interpret this as which means salvation to people by means of the Gospel, however it is my conviction that the prophet has nationwide conversion in mind. ‘All Israel shall be saved’ doesn’t mean that every Jew who has ever lived can be transformed, but that the Jews dwelling when the Redeemer returns will see Him, receive Him, and be saved. Zechariah 12-13 give the small print. It appears to me that there are too many details in these Previous Testomony prophecies of national restoration for Israel for us to spiritualize them and apply them to the church at this time.” (The Bible Exposition Commentary, Vol. 1, p. 552-Three)
Marvin R. Wilson
-“The New Testament seems to affirm a future for ethnic Israel… In Romans 11, Paul is emphatic that despite Israel’s unbelief God has not rejected his people (v. 1). Israel still belongs to God and is called a ‘holy’ people (v. 16) and ‘loved on account of the patriarchs’ (v. 28). Israel’s historically unique preservation lends added support that it still has a vital role to play in the history of redemption (cf. v. 15). This divinely willed coexistence of God’s ancient covenant people and the Church throughout the present age is, to Paul, a great ‘mystery’ (v. 25). He is convinced, however, that God ‘does not change his mind about whom he chooses and blesses’ (v. 29, TEV). Paul’s argument reaches its denouement when he refers to the future salvation of Israel, a time when ‘the deliverer will come from Zion’ (vv. 26-27). The Old Testament context for Paul’s composite quotation here is the salvation of Israel through the appearing of its divine Redeemer (cf. Isa. 59:20-21; 27:9). Thus ‘all Israel’ (i.e., Israel as a whole) will be saved (v. 26)… It would seem from the other letters of Paul that he may have in mind the second coming of Jesus.” (Our Father Abraham: Jewish Roots of the Christian Faith, p. 267-8)
-“When the fullness of the Gentiles is brought in, all Israel will be saved: That is, as our Dutch commentators well observe, not a few, but a very great number, and in a manner the whole Jewish nation, in a full body…They depart from the apostle’s meaning, who, by ‘all Israel,’ understand the ‘mystical Israel,’ or the people of God, consisting both of Jews and Gentiles, without admitting the salvation of the whole Jewish nation, in the sense we have mentioned.” (The Financial system of the Covenants, Vol. 2, ch. 15, p. 414; word: see all of Witsius’s wonderful dialogue on the conversion of the Jews.)
-“But though God has the right to reject His people, and though the Jews are themselves responsible for their refusal to accept the gospel, yet St. Paul cannot believe that it is final. Even now a remnant has been saved by grace; and the present rejection of Israel must have been intended to save the Gentiles. What larger blessing will not God bestow when He restores His people? The Gentiles must see in the fall of Israel the goodness of God towards themselves, and the possibilities of mercy for the Jews. This is enforced by the illustration of the wild olive and the natural branches (11:17-24). The Jews are enemies now, in order that God may bless the Gentiles. But they are still beloved, for the sake of the fathers. No, God has not deserted His people. If they are at present under a cloud, it is God’s mercy and not His anger that has willed it so. And the same unsearchable mercy will one day restore them to His favor (11:25-36).” (Romans, The Epistle to the, in Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible, p. 804)
-“Paul actually began the whole section (9:6) with … a programmatic distinction of two “Israels”, and all through the letter (e.g. 2:25-9) in addition to elsewhere (e.g. Philippians Three:2-11) he has systematically transferred the privileges and attributes of “Israel” to the Messiah and his individuals. It is subsequently tremendously preferable to take “all Israel” in v.26 as a sometimes Pauline
polemical redeﬁnition, as in Galatians 6:16 ..and in line additionally with Philippians Three:2ff., where the church is described as “the circumcision.” (The Climax of the Covenant, p. 250; discover how Wright appeals to the bigger context and not the quick context; why doesn’t he do this in verse 25?)
Robert M. Wright
-“In Romans Paul uses the term Israel in a way which consistently excludes Gentiles. Why does Paul describe Israelites as kindred according to the flesh in Rom 9:4-5 if in Rom 11:26a Ἰσραὴλ has to do only with faith? Whence Paul’s anguish over Ἰσραηλῖται in Rom 9:4 if Ἰσραὴλ in Rom 11:26a simply means the people of God who believe in Christ? If Ἰσραὴλ in Rom 11:26a does not mean ethnic Israel then the rest of Paul’s discussion in Romans 11 makes little sense. No, Paul consistently distinguishes between Gentiles and ethnic Israel throughout Romans 9-11, and it is unlikely Gentiles are includes in the Ἰσραὴλ of Rom 11:26a.” (All Israel Will Be Saved: An Try and Survey and Synthesize Totally different Approaches To Romans 11:26a, p. 3)
-“All Israel will be saved means all ethnic Israel will saved–because of the faithful remnant, and because of the surprising and unexpected mercy of God.” (ibid., p. 9)
-“They indeed are enemies of God for your sakes who believe the gospel: but as regards election, they are those whom God elected from eternity, and he loved them more than others: thus for the sake of the fathers they are elect until now… The fact that they are indeed the people of God for the sake of the fathers is plain. Nor does God repent of his promise. He called Israel to be his people: therefore that people will not be damned but will return to faith and will be saved, even though they have been rejected for a time.” (In Epistolam advert Romanos Annotationes)